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Hyo-Seok Park, Sukyoung Lee, Seok-Woo Son, Steven B. Feldstein, and Yu Kosaka

increase in the poleward moisture flux during the winter, realized through an enhanced moisture flux convergence and downward IR on intraseasonal time scales, leads to a substantial reduction in Arctic sea ice thickness. Recent studies consistently indicate that Arctic warming is preceded by poleward propagating planetary-scale Rossby waves that are often triggered by tropical convection ( Lee et al. 2011 ; Yoo et al. 2012b ; Ding et al. 2014 ). Indeed, as Fig. 6 shows, the downward IR events are

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Michael Goss, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

constructively or destructively interfere with the climatological stationary wave, with the resulting amplification or deamplification of the extratropical flow resulting in more or less heat and moisture (which can change the downward IR) transport into the Arctic, leading to changes in both the Arctic SAT and Arctic sea ice ( Henderson et al. 2014 ; Lee 2014 ; Park et al. 2015 ). Several recent studies ( Cohen et al. 2007 , 2014 ) have shown a link between snow cover anomalies over Eurasia and planetary

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Lee J. Welhouse, Matthew A. Lazzara, Linda M. Keller, Gregory J. Tripoli, and Matthew H. Hitchman

events and La Niña events. Considerable work has gone into determining mechanisms for transmission of a signal to explain the teleconnections found throughout the Southern Hemisphere. Hoskins and Karoly (1981) found that an area of deep convection near the equator can act to create Rossby waves, which then propagate to high latitudes. It was then indicated that these Rossby waves can have a further effect on mid- and high-latitude storm tracks in turn, allowing larger effects at high latitudes from

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Changhyun Yoo, Sungsu Park, Daehyun Kim, Jin-Ho Yoon, and Hye-Mi Kim

the extratropical extreme warm and cold events during boreal winter are associated with wave responses to tropical MJO forcing. Understanding the MJO and its teleconnection is therefore crucial for an accurate forecast of extratropical weather and climate including for North America, especially for the 2–4-week range. Despite the importance of MJO teleconnection, realistic representation of the MJO has been a longstanding challenge for global climate models ( Slingo et al. 1996 ; Lin et al. 2006

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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

planetary waves in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, as well as a westward shift of the ozone column maximum in the southern middle to high latitudes. The tropical signal is communicated to higher latitudes through modulating subtropical anticyclones, which lead to the changes in the location of the column ozone maximum and of the Antarctic polar vortex asymmetry. On the other hand, Turner et al. (2013) disagreed with Hitchman and Rogal (2010) and reported that the depth of the Amundsen

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Jin-Yi Yu, Houk Paek, Eric S. Saltzman, and Tong Lee

the SAM (e.g., Seager et al. 2003 ) and 2) a stratospheric pathway mechanism in which El Niño events affect the propagation of planetary waves into the stratosphere and induce polar temperature and vortex anomalies that subsequently descend into the troposphere to excite the SAM (e.g., Mechoso et al. 1985 ; Hurwitz et al. 2011 ; Son et al. 2013 ; Evtushevsky et al. 2015 ). Here, we focus on the austral spring season [September–November (SON)] when ENSO–SH teleconnections are strongest (e

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Robert A. Tomas, Clara Deser, and Lantao Sun

transport. The resulting dynamically induced warming of the tropical oceans intensifies the intertropical convergence zones (ITCZs) on their equatorward flanks, which in turn alters the midlatitude atmospheric circulation via Rossby wave dynamics. In contrast, the thermodynamic air–sea coupled response to Arctic sea ice loss produces a very different tropical response, shifting the Hadley circulation toward the Northern Hemisphere (NH). A similar thermodynamic coupled response to an extratropical

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