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Jeffrey M. Chagnon and Suzanne L. Gray

), diabatic Rossby waves (e.g., Parker and Thorpe 1995 ; Moore and Montgomery 2004 ; Moore et al. 2013 ), and forecast error growth (e.g., Brennan et al. 2008 ; Davies and Didone 2013 ). In the absence of frictional and diabatic processes, PV is materially conserved. Therefore, PV provides a convenient means to characterize the large-scale structure of the atmosphere and its evolution in mid- and high latitudes where the planetary vorticity is nonnegligible. Climatologically, PV increases with height

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Matthew R. Clark and Douglas J. Parker

the frontal updraft by vertical shear- and buoyancy-induced wavelike disturbances above the front ( Kawashima 2007 ) and the modulation of the frontal updraft by trapped gravity waves, triggered by regions of stronger updraft along the cold front ( Brown et al. 1999 ). Locatelli et al. (1995) defined “large” gaps as those greater than 10–12 km in the alongfront direction, and suggested that they may be dynamically different from smaller gaps. Intense NCFRs often produce damaging wind gusts and

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Sam Hardy, David M. Schultz, and Geraint Vaughan

high-resolution one-layer model of breaking planetary waves in the stratosphere . Nature , 328 , 590 – 596 , doi: 10.1038/328590a0 . 10.1038/328590a0 Kain , J. S. , 2004 : The Kain–Fritsch convective parameterization: An update . J. Appl. Meteor. , 43 , 170 – 181 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0450(2004)043<0170:TKCPAU>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0450(2004)043<0170:TKCPAU>2.0.CO;2 Kain , J. S. , and J. M. Fritsch , 1990 : A one-dimensional entraining/detraining plume model and its application in

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Suzanne L. Gray, and John Methven

sea level pressure) on 24 February 1987, Stoelinga (1996) showed that its intensity was 70% stronger as a result of coupling between baroclinic wave growth and latent heat release. Until now, studies on latent heat release and cyclone intensification have focused on Northern Hemisphere extratropical cyclones occurring mostly during wintertime (December–February), but also during spring (March–May) and autumn (September–November). On the other hand, the importance of latent heat release, and

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David M. Schultz and Joseph M. Sienkiewicz

) described this process as “a result of snow evaporating rapidly, which in turn quickly cools the surrounding air. This cooler, denser air then descends, transferring momentum to the ground.” However, mesoscale modeling studies of both real cyclones and idealized baroclinic waves in which evaporative cooling is turned off do not yield stronger surface winds (T. Baker and P. Knippertz 2012, personal communication; Baker et al. 2013a ; Smart and Browning 2013 ). Although evaporation may be occurring

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C. Dearden, G. Vaughan, T. Tsai, and J.-P. Chen

: 10.1175/1520-0450(1964)003<0027:OTIORL>2.0.CO;2 . Dearden , C. , P. J. Connolly , T. Choularton , P. R. Field , and A. J. Heymsfield , 2012 : Factors influencing ice formation and growth in simulations of a mixed-phase wave cloud . J. Adv. Model. Earth. Syst. , 4 , M10001 , doi: 10.1029/2012MS000163 . Dearden , C. , P. J. Connolly , G. Lloyd , J. Crosier , K. N. Bower , T. W. Choularton , and G. Vaughan , 2014 : Diabatic heating and cooling rates derived

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