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Byron F. Kilbourne and James B. Girton

here have a vertical wavelength near 200 m. Internal wave observations frequently occur in the narrow depth range of 500 to 1000 m near the base of geostrophic shear. This hints that these waves may be trapped by the horizontal eddy structure (modulating planetary vorticity; Kunze 1985 ) and vertical (critical layer) shear. A topic for further study will be to model the three-dimensional near-inertial wave ray paths through a flow field resembling the observed background conditions. Observed wave

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J. R. Ledwell, L. C. St. Laurent, J. B. Girton, and J. M. Toole

remain sparse and mostly limited to mid- and low latitudes ( Gregg et al. 1973 ; Toole et al. 1994 ; Gregg et al. 2003 ; Klymak et al. 2006 ). Measurements of vertical shear and strain at scales of tens of meters, from which mixing estimates can be inferred, are more widespread, but formulations relating these internal wave characteristics to dissipation rates and diapycnal diffusivity are subject to a number of added approximations ( Gregg 1989 ; Kunze et al. 2006 ). The Southern Ocean is a

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Matthew R. Mazloff, Raffaele Ferrari, and Tapio Schneider

Science Foundation Grant MCA06N007. REFERENCES Abernathey , R. , J. Marshall , and D. Ferreira , 2011 : The dependence of Southern Ocean meridional overturning on wind stress . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 41 , 2261 – 2278 . Andrews , D. G. , 1983 : A finite-amplitude Eliassen–Palm theorem in isentropic coordinates . J. Atmos. Sci. , 40 , 1877 – 1883 . Andrews , D. G. , and M. E. McIntyre , 1976 : Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: The generalized Eliassen–Palm relation

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Michael Bates, Ross Tulloch, John Marshall, and Raffaele Ferrari

: 10.1175/1520-0485(1997)027<0567:POQEIP>2.0.CO;2 . Tulloch , R. , J. C. Marshall , and K. S. Smith , 2009 : Interpretation of the propagation of surface altimetric observations in terms of planetary waves and geostrophic turbulence. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C02005 , doi: 10.1029/2008JC005055 . Tulloch , R. , J. C. Marshall , C. Hill , and K. S. Smith , 2011 : Scales, growth rates, and spectral fluxes of baroclinic instability in the ocean . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 41 , 1057

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Louis-Philippe Nadeau and Raffaele Ferrari

proportional to the wind stress magnitude τ 0 and inversely proportional to the effective eddy diffusivity κ , a measure of the eddy intensity. Thus, we infer that in our flat channel simulations the eddy diffusivity increases as κ ~ τ 0.8 , so as to give . When a ridge is added, the dynamics change in a fundamental way. The leading-order balance of zonal momentum is between the surface wind stress and the topographic form drag at the ridge. A large-scale standing wave pattern in the form of a

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