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H. Annamalai, H. Okajima, and M. Watanabe

: positive SST anomalies in the equatorial central and eastern regions of the Pacific Ocean favor enhanced deep convection there; this leads to an increase in the release of latent heating throughout the troposphere and in the divergent flow at upper levels; subsequently, the upper-level divergence forces planetary Rossby waves that project onto the PNA pattern ( Hoskins and Karoly 1981 ; Webster 1981 ; Simmons 1982 ; Branstator 1985 ). One limitation of this conceptual scenario is the requirement

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Vinu K. Valsala and Motoyoshi Ikeda

the particles were absent. One typical region is a band extending from the western coast of Australia to the east coast of Madagascar bound between 20° and 30°S ( Figs. 8a,b ). The necessary mechanism for such features could be attributed to the planetary waves and will be interpreted in section 4b(3) . 2) Diffusion The deviation of tracer pathways from the particle trajectories can be partially attributed to the diffusive process. The effect of horizontal as well as vertical diffusion in the

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Bohua Huang and J. Shukla

generated by regional coupled processes. These results suggest that the ENSO influence is to modulate the temporal fluctuation of the Indian Ocean mode through the propagation of the atmospheric planetary waves. The extent of the external influence depends on the amplitude and frequency of the external forcing. As will be shown in the second part of this study, the globally coupled simulation, which produces an ENSO cycle centered at a 5-yr period with weaker amplitude than the observed one, has the

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Roxana C. Wajsowicz

spring and early summer when the coupling strength is maximal, has been explained using linear dynamics and a simple delayed oscillator mechanism by Tziperman et al. (1998) and is illustrated in Fig. 3c . Assuming coupling strength is proportional to thermocline depth, then westerly anomalies generated in boreal spring when the ENSO event is weak generate weak upwelling westward propagating long Rossby waves (LRWs) and weak downwelling eastward propagating equatorial Kelvin waves (EKWs). The LRWs

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Qian Song, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Anthony J. Rosati

mixed layer is predicted using the K-profile parameterization ( Large et al. 1994 ). The eddy mixing parameterization of Gent and McWilliams (1990) as implemented by Griffies (1998) is used in the model. The atmosphere component is the GFDL atmosphere model AM2p12b ( GFDL Global Atmospheric Model Development Team 2004 ). The model has a finite-volume dynamical core, with 24 vertical layers and 2.5° × 2° horizontal spacing. A K-profile planetary boundary layer scheme, relaxed Arakawa

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