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Rod Frehlich, Yannick Meillier, and Michael L. Jensen

-modulated continuous wave radar for studying planetary boundary layer morphology. Radio Sci. , 30 , 75 – 88 . 10.1029/94RS01937 Esau, I. N. , and Zilitinkevich S. S. , 2006 : Universal dependencies between turbulent and mean flow parameters in stably and neutrally stratified planetary boundary layers. Nonlinear Processes Geophys. , 13 , 135 – 144 . 10.5194/npg-13-135-2006 Frehlich, R. , 1997 : Effects of wind turbulence on coherent Doppler lidar performance. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 14 , 54

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Danny E. Scipión, Phillip B. Chilson, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Robert D. Palmer

, R. J. , and Zrnić D. S. , 1993 : Doppler Radar and Weather Observations . 2nd ed. Academic Press, 562 pp . Eaton, F. D. , McLaughlin S. A. , and Hines J. R. , 1995 : A new frequency-modulated continuous wave radar for studying planetary boundary layer morphology. Radio Sci. , 30 , 75 – 88 . 10.1029/94RS01937 Ecklund, W. L. , Gage K. S. , and Williams C. R. , 1995 : Tropical precipitation studies using a 915-MHz wind profiler. Radio Sci. , 30 , 1055 – 1064 . 10

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Ronny Engelmann, Ulla Wandinger, Albert Ansmann, Detlef Müller, Egidijus Žeromskis, Dietrich Althausen, and Birgit Wehner

1. Introduction The vertical exchange of sensible heat (temperature), latent heat (moisture), particles, and trace gases between the surface and the lower troposphere has a strong influence on weather and climate and atmospheric composition, as well as on smog and haze conditions at the ground. Vertical exchange depends in a complicated way on surface characteristics and meteorological conditions in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The mechanisms within the PBL and in the entrainment zone

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Daniela Nowak, Dominique Ruffieux, Judith L. Agnew, and Laurent Vuilleumier

information about the meteorological conditions are important for weather forecasters, climate studies, and aviation control. One of the high priority duties of observers is the description of the evolution of clouds, especially within the planetary boundary layer. However, automatic weather reports are becoming important because human observations are becoming more difficult to organize, especially during nighttime ( Aviolat et al. 1998 ). The cloud amount (sky coverage in octas) can be automatically

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