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Anne-Marie E. G. Brunner-Suzuki, Miles A. Sundermeyer, and M.-Pascale Lelong

-scale background wave does not limit, but rather excites, upscale energy transfer. What eventually limits the upscale transfer is still an open question. In the coastal ocean, bottom friction may impose such a limit. In the open ocean, characteristics of the flow, or the planetary Rhines scale, are more likely. Also, mesoscale shears and strains could impose a limit on upscale energy transfer. In essence, our results indicate that only the wave amplitude (through the forcing amplitude f w ) appears to matter

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Ren-Chieh Lien and Thomas B. Sanford

1. Introduction Oceanic variations at horizontal scales smaller than O (100) km, vertical scales less than the order of tens of meters, and frequencies between inertial and buoyancy frequencies are generally thought to be internal waves. The most prominent features of internal waves are that they propagate and do not possess Ertel potential vorticity (PV). Müller (1984) proposes that a PV-carrying finestructure, termed vortical motion, coexists with internal waves at the same spatial scales

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Daniel B. Whitt and Leif N. Thomas

and strong fronts (e.g., D’Asaro et al. 2011 ; Whitt et al. 2014, manuscript submitted to J. Geophys. Res. ), there is ample opportunity for interactions between inertial oscillations and strong geostrophic vorticity (e.g., Mooers 1975 ; Kunze 1985 ; Young and Ben-Jelloul 1997 ; Whitt and Thomas 2013 ). These wave–mean flow interactions may result in regionally elevated internal wave energy and enhanced turbulent mixing in the boundary layer and upper thermocline of the western boundary

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Gualtiero Badin, Amit Tandon, and Amala Mahadevan

dynamical instabilities and thereby associated with the growth and evolution of such instabilities? It has been previously hypothesized that enhanced lateral mixing in the pycnocline results from the generation of mixed patches generated by internal wave breaking that spin up under the action of gravity and rotation to form vortical modes or eddies ( Sundermeyer et al. 2005 ; Sundermeyer and Lelong 2005 ). In this study, we neglect vortical modes, and instead examine lateral mixing resulting from the

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