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Natalie P. Thomas, Michael G. Bosilovich, Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Randal D. Koster, Siegfried D. Schubert, Amin Dezfuli, and Sarith P. Mahanama

. Washington , 2013 : Probability of US heat waves affected by a subseasonal planetary wave pattern . Nat. Geosci. , 6 , 1056 – 1061 , . 10.1038/ngeo1988 Tuttle , J. D. , and C. A. Davis , 2006 : Corridors of warm season precipitation in the central United States . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134 , 2297 – 2317 , . 10.1175/MWR3188.1 Uccellini , L. W. , and D. R. Johnson , 1979 : The coupling of upper and lower tropospheric jet

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Krzysztof Wargan and Lawrence Coy

data ( Homeyer et al. 2010 ). Given an enhanced planetary wave activity during SSW events, it is reasonable to ask whether anticyclonic wave breaking at the tropopause contributes to the increased observed in Figs. 1a , 2b , and 4 . We will argue that such a contribution exists but plays only a minor role. Figures 5a and 5b show the distribution of and relative vorticity at the tropopause between 75° and 86°N in two 2-week periods before and immediately after the SSW. The distributions

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Lawrence Coy, Paul A. Newman, Steven Pawson, and Leslie R. Lait

their vertical extent. By April, easterlies completely surround the separated upper-westerly jet. In summary, during the November–February period, the average lower-stratospheric EP fluxes extended from north to south across the equator as expected for planetary waves propagating from the NH to the SH. A complete understanding of theses waves and their relatively large contribution to the momentum budget and flux ( Figs. 4 and 5 ) needs further investigation. Fig . 6. Monthly averaged zonal mean

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Gloria L. Manney and Michaela I. Hegglin

, doi: 10.1002/wcc.251 . Mann , M. E. , S. Rahmstorf , K. Kornhuber , B. A. Steinman , S. K. Miller , and D. Coumou , 2017 : Influence of anthropogenic climate change on planetary wave resonance and extreme weather events . Sci. Rep. , 7 , 45242 , doi: 10.1038/srep45242 . 10.1038/srep45242 Manney , G. L. , and Coauthors , 2011 : Jet characterization in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS): Applications to climatology and transport studies . Atmos. Chem. Phys

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Michael G. Bosilovich, and Randal D. Koster

– 2472 , doi: 10.1002/joc.3597 . Rivera, E. R. , Dominguez F. , and Castro C. L. , 2014 : Atmospheric rivers and cool season extreme precipitation events in the Verde River basin of Arizona . J. Hydrometeor. , 15 , 813 – 829 , doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-12-0189.1 . Stadtherr, L. , Coumou D. , Petoukhov V. , Petri S. , and Rahmstorf S. , 2016 : Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance . Sci. Adv. , 2 , e1501428 , doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1501428 . Takacs, L. L

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Krzysztof Wargan, Gordon Labow, Stacey Frith, Steven Pawson, Nathaniel Livesey, and Gary Partyka

differences between MERRA-2 and UARS MLS, the two datasets agree quite well in terms of the structure of the ozone fields. As an example, Fig. 9 shows the ozone field at 10 hPa on 21 December 1993. A breaking planetary wave pulled a thin tongue of ozone-rich subtropical air from over the coast of East Asia into the high latitudes, transporting it along the edge of the polar vortex almost over the North Pole, and wrapping it around the Aleutian anticyclone. This is a fairly common occurrence in the

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Ronald Gelaro, Will McCarty, Max J. Suárez, Ricardo Todling, Andrea Molod, Lawrence Takacs, Cynthia A. Randles, Anton Darmenov, Michael G. Bosilovich, Rolf Reichle, Krzysztof Wargan, Lawrence Coy, Richard Cullather, Clara Draper, Santha Akella, Virginie Buchard, Austin Conaty, Arlindo M. da Silva, Wei Gu, Gi-Kong Kim, Randal Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Dagmar Merkova, Jon Eric Nielsen, Gary Partyka, Steven Pawson, William Putman, Michele Rienecker, Siegfried D. Schubert, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Bin Zhao

-polar flow events occur frequently, especially during major sudden warming events, as planetary-scale Rossby waves disturb the polar vortex. Ertel’s potential vorticity (EPV), a scalar based on the horizontal vorticity, is often used to characterize the stratospheric circulation ( Andrews et al. 1987 ), where stronger EPV gradients imply stronger flow. Figure 20 illustrates a case where the analyzed wind speeds in MERRA-2 reached nearly 170 m s −1 close to the polar stratopause at 1200 UTC 2 January

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