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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

-hurricane case (not shown). Fig . 2. (a) Distribution and (b) resolution of 61 (black) and 74 (red) vertical model levels. All the experiments used the same HWRF model physics, which is mostly in accordance with those in the 2015 operational HWRF ( Tallapragada et al. 2016 ; see “Basic model physics” column of Table 1 ). The difference is that, as suggested by Lu and Wang (2019) , the modified turbulent mixing parameterization ( Zhu et al. 2019 ) is used in the planetary boundary layer scheme to strengthen

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

the vortex can be resistant to the environment shear to some extent. Reasor et al. (2004) argued that the tilt asymmetry of the vortex would be damped by radiation of sheared vortex Rossby waves. Recent studies have also identified a reduction in vortex tilt under moderate shear preceding the TC intensification (e.g., Miyamoto and Nolan 2018 ; Rios-Berrios et al. 2018 ). Moreover, the diabatic heating and consequent secondary circulation in TCs are thought to greatly enhance that resistance

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Patrick Duran and John Molinari

of the background environment. More recent literature (e.g., Wirth 2003 ) has noted that strong, shallow temperature inversions immediately above the cold-point tropopause are a common feature in the tropics, now known as the tropopause inversion layer (TIL). On the planetary scale, TIL formation and maintenance has been tied to planetary wave dynamics ( Grise et al. 2010 ) and vertical gradients of radiative heating across the tropopause ( Randel et al. 2007 ), but the relative contributions of

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Nannan Qin and Da-Lin Zhang

– 691 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49711247307 . Betts , A. K. , and M. J. Miller , 1986 : A new convective adjustment scheme. Part II: Single column tests using GATE wave, BOMEX, and Arctic air-mass data sets . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 112 , 693 – 709 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49711247308 . Braun , S. A. , and W.-K. Tao , 2000 : Sensitivity of high-resolution simulations of Hurricane Bob (1991) to planetary boundary layer parameterizations . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 128 , 3941

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Jonathan Martinez, Michael M. Bell, Robert F. Rogers, and James D. Doyle

radially displaced from the axis of rotation and concentrated along the inner edge of the RMW ( Möller and Smith 1994 ). Prior studies have demonstrated that the radial PV gradients in a TC serve as waveguides for vortex Rossby waves (VRWs; Guinn and Schubert 1993 ; Montgomery and Kallenbach 1997 ). In the presence of a hollow-tower PV structure, the sign reversal of the radial PV gradient satisfies the Rayleigh necessary condition for barotropic instability ( Schubert et al. 1999 ), or more

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Russell L. Elsberry, Eric A. Hendricks, Christopher S. Velden, Michael M. Bell, Melinda Peng, Eleanor Casas, and Qingyun Zhao

) field. Model dynamics will then adjust the mean and asymmetric wind fields, which in the lower model levels will take into account the planetary boundary layer frictional effects and enthalpy fluxes. Whereas these internal adjustments will determine the intensity change, the TC vortex dynamics and physics prediction are expected to also improve the interaction between the vortex and its environment in conjunction with the better depiction of the outflow jets from the high temporal and spatial

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William A. Komaromi and James D. Doyle

a model top of 29.4 km. Consistent with the innermost 5-km nest of the operational COAMPS-TC from 2014 to 2016, no deep convective scheme is employed. However, a parameterization of shallow convection is used. The planetary boundary layer is parameterized using a 1.5-order turbulence closure ( Hodur 1997 ). The model was run with dissipative heating ( Jin et al. 2007 ) but without radiation. Microphysics is specified via prognostic equations for mixing ratios of cloud droplets, ice particles

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