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T. N. Krishnamurti, Arindam Chakraborty, and A. K. Mishra

). Convection plays a major role in tropical intraseasonal variability and quasi-stationary circulation. Errors in the vertical placement of heating and the magnitudes of heating do have implications in the modeling of convectively coupled wave propagation such as ITCZ, MJO, and moist Kelvin waves. (A list of acronyms is provided in Table 1 .) Climate models have difficulty in the simulation of MJO, and large sensitivity of such simulations to the vertical heating distributions has been noted by several

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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

latent heat and the atmospheric circulation in the free atmosphere, in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and at oceanic surface are fundamental to the wave-conditional instability of the second kind (CISK; Lau and Peng 1987 ), Ekman-CISK ( Wang and Rui 1990 ; Hendon and Salby 1994 ), and wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE; Emanuel 1987 ; Neelin et al. 1987 ) hypotheses to explain the growth rate and phase speed of the MJO. It is suggested that the slow propagation of the MJO could be

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

profiles in the 3D simulation with observations is due to the fact that the turbulent processes in the planetary boundary layer is three-dimensional in nature, and it is very important for Q 2 retrieval using the SLH algorithm ( Part III ), which motivates us to produce LUTs using GCE 3D simulations. b. Comparisons of lookup tables Figure 2a shows an LUT produced from GCE 2D simulations (hereinafter LUT2D) for convective rain. In Part I , Part II , and Part III , the GCE-simulated precipitation

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

1. Introduction The release of latent heat in the tropical atmosphere accounts for approximately 75% of the total heating in the earth’s atmosphere (e.g., Riehl and Malkus 1958 ; Malkus 1962 ; Riehl and Simpson 1979 ). Tropical latent heating (LH) plays a major role in driving and modulating tropical and extratropical weather across all spatial and temporal scales from meso- and synoptic to planetary scales (e.g., Matsuno 1966 ; Webster 1972 ; Gill 1980 ; Hartmann et al. 1984 ; Mapes

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