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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

the NESC have not been adequately explored so far. The seasonal variability of the Pacific equatorial subsurface currents has been studied by Lukas and Firing (1985) , Kessler and McCreary (1993) , and Marin et al. (2010) , showing that the annual reversal of the Equatorial Intermediate Current is controlled by vertical propagation of baroclinic Rossby waves. Using Argo parking depth trajectory measurements, Cravatte et al. (2012) showed that the largely one cycle per year variations of the

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

passage of the MJO. They partitioned the heating into convective, stratiform, and radiative components, and found that with the onset of the MJO, the stratiform rainfall anomalies lagged the convective anomalies by a few days. In most numerical weather or climate models, the diabatic heating is calculated as an explicit potential temperature tendency. Depending on the formulation of the model, the heating will arise from the microphysics scheme, the cumulus scheme, the planetary boundary layer scheme

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

, we chose MT instead of pure MRG waves ( Matsuno 1966 ) in this study. Table 1. The range of planetary zonal wavenumber, period, and equivalent depth chosen for filtering waves and their corresponding reference. Positive (negative) planetary zonal wavenumber indicates eastward (westward) propagation. MJO and MT do not follow the dispersion curve so the equivalent depths are not calculated. c. Diurnal cycle analysis To analyze the diurnal variation of precipitation, the dates are separated into

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

, S.-K. Yang , J. J. Hnilo , M. Fiorino , and G. L. Potter , 2002 : NCEP–DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2) . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 1631 – 1644 , https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-83-11-1631 . 10.1175/BAMS-83-11-1631 Kodera , K. , H. Mukougawa , and S. Itoh , 2008 : Tropospheric impact of reflected planetary waves from the stratosphere . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 35 , L16806 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034575 . 10.1029/2008GL034575 Lee , S. , T. Gong , N

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Ching-Shu Hung and Chung-Hsiung Sui

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant intraseasonal variability in the tropical atmosphere. It can be described as a tropical planetary-scale circulation system coupled with a multiscale convective complex and propagating eastward slowly with a rearward tilted vertical structure and a mixed Kelvin–Rossby wave horizontal structure ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ; Wheeler et al. 2000 ; Kiladis et al. 2005 ; Wang 2012 ). The planetary

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Yan Zhu, Tim Li, Ming Zhao, and Tomoe Nasuno

characterized by a zonally planetary length scale with global wavenumber 1–2 ( Wang and Rui 1990 ; Li and Zhou 2009 ), a Kelvin wave and Rossby wave couplet pattern ( Rui and Wang 1990 ; Wang and Li 1994 ; Li and Wang 1994 ; Adames and Wallace 2014 ), and a vertically tilted structure in vertical velocity and moisture fields ( Sperber 2003 ; Hsu and Li 2012 ). Table 1. List of acronyms. Most MJO events initiate in the west Indian Ocean ( Matthews 2008 ; Zhao et al. 2013 ; Straub 2013 ), weaken over

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

1. Introduction Deep convective structures populate the tropics, provide the energetics that drive the large-scale tropical circulation, and interact with superimposed atmospheric waves ( Riehl and Malkus 1957 ; Lorenz 1969 ; Hendon and Liebmann 1991 ; Kiladis and Weickmann 1992 ; Chang 1995 ; Lane et al. 2001 ; Fierro et al. 2009 ). The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 , 1994 ; Zhang 2005 ) is one such disturbance, and while the MJO is commonly defined

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

1. Introduction The Maritime Continent (MC) plays an important role as a heat and moisture source that can impact global circulation and modulate planetary-scale variability ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ). However, despite its importance, large errors are commonly found in the MC region in global and regional climate and weather models (e.g., Gianotti et al. 2012 ; Holloway et al. 2012 ; Nguyen et al. 2015 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2012 ; and others). One likely source of these errors arises from the

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Xiang Li, Dongliang Yuan, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep Sandra, Ahmad Bayhaqi, Praditya Avianto, Edi Kusmanto, Dirham Dirhamsyah, and Zainal Arifin

, 2019 : Interannual variability of the Sulawesi Sea circulation forced by Indo-Pacific planetary waves . J. Geophys. Res. Oceans , 124 , 1616 – 1633 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JC014356 . 10.1029/2018JC014356 Koch-Larrouy , A. , A. Atimadipoera , P. van Beek , G. Madec , J. Aucan , F. Lyard , J. Grelet , and M. Souhaut , 2015 : Estimates of tidal mixing in the Indonesian archipelago from multidisciplinary INDOMIX in-situ data . Deep-Sea Res. I , 106 , 136 – 153

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Chidong Zhang and Jian Ling

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is a primary source of predictability of the Earth system on subseasonal (3–6 weeks) time scales ( Waliser et al. 2003 ). As the MJO moves eastward, its influences on many environmental hazards (e.g., tropical cyclones, cold surges, heat waves, lightning, and flood) and climate modes [e.g., Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), ENSO, and NAO] depend on whether its convection center is over the Indian Ocean, the Indo

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