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Audrey Delpech, Claire Ménesguen, Yves Morel, Leif N. Thomas, Frédéric Marin, Sophie Cravatte, and Sylvie Le Gentil

energy sources present in the ocean at low latitude is associated with planetary waves. It has been shown that in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, a large source of energy in the deep is associated with annual and semiannual Rossby waves, as well as intra-annual waves: 30-day, 1000-km mixed Rossby–gravity waves, associated with surface tropical instability waves, and short-scale variability, with periods around 70 days and wavelengths around 500 km ( Bunge et al. 2008 ; von Schuckmann et al. 2008

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Nils Brüggemann and Carsten Eden

balance, which are much larger than the small-scale regime that features a downscale energy flux. Because of the inverse energy flux on these larger scales, the energy has to be dissipated at the basin scale. Several mechanisms have been discussed for such a large-scale dissipation, for example, bottom friction ( Arbic et al. 2009 ), lee-wave generation ( Bell 1975 ; Nikurashin and Ferrari 2011 ), topographic inviscid dissipation of balanced flow ( Dewar and Hogg 2010 ), loss of balance resulting

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Alain Colin de Verdière and Michel Ollitrault

of both topography and oceanic motions (mesoscale eddies, internal waves). Difficulties in such estimations in the atmosphere have been explored by Smith (1978) , who emphasizes the topographic scales that need to be resolved for reliable estimates of the mountain drag. Because the spectrum of topographic slopes in the ocean is typically white at wavenumbers between 10 −2 and 10 cycles km −1 ( Bell 1975 ), the question of the choice of topography and velocity to be used for the evaluation of

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