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Ayumu Miyamoto, Hisashi Nakamura, and Takafumi Miyasaka

.1002/2015JD023603 McCoy , D. T. , I. Tan , D. L. Hartmann , M. D. Zelinka , and T. Storelvmo , 2016 : On the relationships among cloud cover, mixed-phase partitioning, and planetary albedo in GCMs . J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. , 8 , 650 – 668 , . 10.1002/2015MS000589 McCoy , D. T. , R. Eastman , D. L. Hartmann , and R. Wood , 2017 : The change in low cloud cover in a warmed climate inferred from AIRS, MODIS, and ERA-Interim . J. Climate

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, and Akira Kuwano-Yoshida

.1175/1520-0469(1991)048<2313:ASFRCC>2.0.CO;2 . Emanuel , K. A. , and M. Živković-Rothman , 1999 : Development and evaluation of a convection scheme for use in climate models . J. Atmos. Sci. , 56 , 1766 – 1782 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<1766:DAEOAC>2.0.CO;2 . Frankignoul , C. , 1985 : Sea surface temperature anomalies, planetary waves, and air–sea feedback in the middle latitudes . Rev. Geophys. , 23 , 357 – 390 , doi: 10.1029/RG023i004p00357 . Frankignoul , C. , N. Sennéchael , Y.-O. Kwon , and M

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Thomas Kilpatrick, Niklas Schneider, and Bo Qiu

–4972 . Zhang , D. , and R. A. Anthes , 1982 : A high-resolution model of the planetary boundary layer—Sensitivity tests and comparisons with SESAME-79 data . J. Appl. Meteor. , 21 , 1594 – 1609 . 1 The reduced vertical wavelength of the Feliks et al. (2010) standing wave (1.5 km) relative to ours (9.4 km) is consistent with their weaker cross-front background wind (3 m s −1 ). 2 This is analogous to a linear bottom Ekman layer, where the wind stress curl is a diagnostic measure of the depth

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Bunmei Taguchi and Niklas Schneider

Pacific decadal variability in the Community Climate System Model version 2 . J. Climate , 20 , 2416 – 2433 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI4103.1 . Latif , M. , and T. P. Barnett , 1994 : Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America . Science , 266 , 634 – 637 , doi: 10.1126/science.266.5185.634 . Liu , Z. , 1999 : Forced planetary wave response in a thermocline gyre . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 29 , 1036 – 1055 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<1036:FPWRIA>2.0.CO;2

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Adèle Révelard, Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Bo Qiu

redistributed by the time-mean tropospheric jets, which act as waveguides ( Branstator 2002 ). Although stationary Rossby waves play an important role in spreading the signal horizontally, the strengthening of the polar vortex implies that the upward injection of planetary-wave activity from the troposphere to the stratosphere is reduced ( Baldwin and Dunkerton 1999 ; Polvani and Waugh 2004 ). To confirm this hypothesis, we consider the zonally averaged meridional eddy heat flux [ υ * T *] at 100 hPa

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Kotaro Katsube and Masaru Inatsu

Ambrizzi 1993 ), which is prescribed for the LBM diagnosis, indicates that forcing is imposed in the northern edge of the region, where Rossby waves of any wavenumber are prohibited. In this, is latitude and where is Earth’s radius. In contrast, the pattern from the Sea of Okhotsk to the Aleutian Islands exists in a waveguide where planetary-scale waves can propagate. The horizontal component of wave activity flux ( Takaya and Nakamura 2001 ), demonstrates northeastward wave propagation from the

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Hyodae Seo, Young-Oh Kwon, Terrence M. Joyce, and Caroline C. Ummenhofer

low-frequency dynamics involving the high-latitude wave-breaking and wave-blocking events ( Strong and Magnusdottir 2008 ) influence the position of the North Atlantic eddy-driven jet and the NAO ( Rivière and Orlanski 2007 ; Woollings et al. 2010b ). The basin-scale quasi-steady circulation response to extratropical SST forcing often resembles the leading mode of the internal atmospheric variability ( Peng and Robinson 2001 ; Deser et al. 2004 ; Frankignoul and Sennéchael 2007 ). The

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, Masato Mori, and Yu Kosaka

“dynamical mode” ( Kosaka and Nakamura 2006 , 2010 ), which is inherent to the climatological-mean state of the westerly jet, planetary waves, and associated background thermal gradient. Among the energy conversion/generation terms, the most distinct difference between the observations and the model appears in GP (energy generation through diabatic heating). For the observed anomalies GP as the net is negative and acts as a damping, while positive GP in the model indicates efficient forcing to the

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida and Shoshiro Minobe

−1 without zero contours] are shown. The precipitation difference between CNTL and SMTHK associated with the explosive deepening also affects the upper troposphere. Figure 12 displays the basin-scale composite differences in the geopotential height at 300 hPa between the explosive and slow deepening events in CNTL and SMTHK. Here, the difference is taken to enhance the characteristics of the explosive deepening events. At T = −24 h, the geopotential height anomaly shows a wave train

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Hyodae Seo, Arthur J. Miller, and Joel R. Norris

(ignoring the wave effects on currents) as where τ is the wind stress, ρ a is the density of the air, C D is the drag coefficient, and W and U are the 10-m wind speed and the surface current speed, respectively. The ocean eddies influence the wind stress through SSTs modifying W via marine boundary layer (MABL) dynamics (e.g., Wallace et al. 1989 ; Samelson et al. 2006 ) and surface currents creating velocity shear across the air–sea interface. To illustrate the SST effect on the wind

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