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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

al. 2002 ; Wang et al. 2014 ). The strength, frequency, and persistence of midlatitude extreme weather events are linked to midlatitude atmospheric circulation patterns and are projected to increase under future climate change ( Barriopedro et al. 2011 ; Reichstein et al. 2013 ; Zscheischler et al. 2015 ). There is strong evidence that amplified quasi-stationary planetary waves favor extreme weather events in the midlatitudes ( Coumou et al. 2015 ; Screen and Simmonds 2014 ). In particular, a

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Arne Melsom, Steven D. Meyers, James J. O'Brien, Harley E. Hurlburt, and Joseph E. Metzger

reported based on results from another version of the present numerical model ( Jacobs et al., 1994 ). There it was demonstrated that the 1982–83 El Niño triggered planetary waves that crossed the North Pacific basin and caused a partial northward rerouting of the Kuroshio extension in 1992–93. Computing the empirical orthogonal functions of Geosat altimetry data from the Exact Repeat Mission, Bhaskaran et al. ( Bhaskaran et al., 1993 ) detected a mode in the GOA region for which no cause was found in

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Peter K. Snyder

. ( Hasler et al. 2009 ) has also explored the influence of tropical deforestation on the extratropical precipitation response using a multimodel ensemble approach. They found a statistically significant signal in precipitation in the tropics but a considerably weaker signal in the extratropics. In addition, the authors found an extratropical dynamical response in the geopotential height field indicating that tropical deforestation may influence planetary wave patterns. Other studies have also indicated

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Gian Villamil-Otero, Ryan Meiszberg, Jennifer S. Haase, Ki-Hong Min, Mark R. Jury, and John J. Braun

progression of easterly waves that bring rainfall of more than 1500 mm yr −1 . Puerto Rico is under easterly trade winds more than 80% of the year. A daytime sea-breeze component is often present along the coast of Puerto Rico ( Riehl 1947 ; Carter and Elsner 1996 ; Jury et al. 2009 ), enhancing convection over the western interior. The synoptic flow over the island often results in the formation of twin counterrotating gyres on the leeward edges ( Jury and Chiao 2013 ). The downstream mountain wake is

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Lei Meng and Yanjun Shen

occurrence of extreme hot T and heat waves ( Hirschi et al. 2011 ; Seneviratne et al. 2010 ). For instance, Seneviratne et al. ( Seneviratne et al. 2006 ) investigated the land–atmosphere interactions in the regional simulations of recent and future climatic conditions and found that the increase in summer T variability in central and Eastern Europe was mainly due to SM– T feedbacks. Zhang et al. ( Zhang et al. 2009 ) used SM from the Global Land Data Assimilation System and observational Ts to

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Shaoping Chu, Scott Elliott, Mathew Maltrud, Jose Hernandez, and David Erickson

nonsimulated surface, according to standard climatologies (e.g., Broecker et al. 1982 ; Levitus et al., 1993 ; see online at http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/WOA98F/open_1st.html ). Fields are initialized in the thermocline and mixed layer based on the same sources. Complete biology modeling begins on 1 January 1995, and a rough planetary steady state is attained within a few years (see the conclusions of Sarmiento et al., 1993 and Chu et al., 2003 ). Effects of the 1997/98 El Niño are effectively

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Arindam Samanta, Bruce T. Anderson, Sangram Ganguly, Yuri Knyazikhin, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, and Ranga B. Myneni

. 1983 . Breaking planetary-waves in the stratosphere. Nature 305 : 593 – 600 . McLandress , C. and T. G. Shepherd . 2009 . Simulated anthropogenic changes in the Brewer–Dobson circulation, including its extension to high latitudes. J. Climate 22 : 1516 – 1540 . Meehl , G. A

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Mark R. Jury and Sen Chiao

downstream wake can produce a pair of counterrotating eddies and an associated vorticity dipole. Depending on the Froude and Reynolds numbers and mountain height, either standing waves or drifting vortices can be shed. Wakes and quasi-stationary eddies near mountainous islands are often seen in satellite cloud patterns ( Chopra 1973 ; Etling 1989 ). Extensive aerial surveys have been conducted around many islands ( Smith and Grubisic 1993 ), and the structure of the trade wind flow has been simulated

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Falko K. Fye, David W. Stahle, and Edward R. Cook

often involves an extratropical trough poleward of the tropical heat source. Thus, a typical teleconnection pattern involves a strengthened subtropical jet emanating from the vicinity of the heat source into the eastern half of a midlatitude trough. This process can influence the position of wave trains in the Northern Hemisphere in the form of geopotential height and streamfunction anomalies ( Trenberth 1997 ). As an example, intense convection in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) may shift

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Evgeny A. Podolskiy

empirically and theoretically proven fact that Earth’s crust must be close to the earthquake failure threshold everywhere (e.g., Ruff 2002 ; McGarr et al. 2002 ), the present paper covers various contributing factors of stress changes related to ice, water, and tectonics. Planetary redistribution of masses and stresses Today, it is widely accepted that global warming is the cause for a powerful planetary redistribution of water masses from the polar regions to lower latitudes. A huge release of ice from

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