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Mary M. Forrester and Reed M. Maxwell

-dimensional thermal and kinetic energy and moisture flux in the atmosphere. In all models, the Thompson et al. (2008) bulk microphysics scheme was used for simulated formation of cloud droplets and precipitation fallout. Longwave and shortwave radiation were represented by the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) and the Dudhia scheme ( Dudhia 1989 ), respectively. Finally, the Yonsei University (YSU) scheme was used for planetary boundary layer dynamics ( Hong et al. 2006 ). Land surface

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Jinwoong Yoo, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Marshall Shepherd, Sujay Kumar, Patricia Lawston, and Andrew M. Thomas

scheme ( Matsui et al. 2018 ). Turbulent closure is computed using level 2 of the Mellor–Yamada–Nakanishi–Niino (MYNN) model ( Nakanishi and Niino 2004 , 2006 , 2009 ) in which vertical mixing is parameterized to interact with both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and free atmosphere ( Noda et al. 2010 ; Ohno et al. 2016 ). For the WRF tropical suite, on the other hand, cloud microphysics are computed using the WSM6 scheme which solves for six categories of hydrometeor: water vapor, cloud water

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Hyun Il Choi, Xin-Zhong Liang, and Praveen Kumar

. Choi (2006) incorporated a non-inertial diffusion wave model to account for the downstream backwater effect. This was an approximate form of the Saint-Venant (1871) equation, known for its efficiency in accuracy and computation ( Ponce et al. 1978 ; Akan and Yen 1981 ; Hromadka et al. 1987 ; Morita and Yen 2002 ; Kazezyilmaz-Alhan et al. 2005 ). Choi and Liang (2010) incorporated the baseflow allocation scheme along with improved terrestrial hydrologic representations such as realistic

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Carolina A. Bieri, Francina Dominguez, and David M. Lawrence

Coauthors , 2004 : Regions of strong coupling between soil moisture and precipitation . Science , 305 , 1138 – 1140 , https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1100217 . 10.1126/science.1100217 Koster , R. D. , Y. Chang , and S. D. Schubert , 2014 : A mechanism for land–atmosphere feedback involving planetary wave structures . J. Climate , 27 , 9290 – 9301 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00315.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00315.1 Koster , R. D. , Y. Chang , H. Wang , and S. D. Schubert

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Timothy M. Lahmers, Christopher L. Castro, and Pieter Hazenberg

1. Introduction Evidence of feedback between the lower atmosphere and the land surface, particularly in arid and semiarid environments, has been shown from analysis of near-surface fluxes and planetary boundary layer (PBL) characteristics in both modeling and observation studies (e.g., Findell and Eltahir 1997 ; Koster et al. 2002 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2009 ; Zeng et al. 2010 ; Santanello et al. 2018 ). The recent development of coupled mesoscale atmospheric and distributed hydrologic modeling

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Haiden Mersiovsky, and Michael G. Bosilovich

) noted a positive correlation between land falling ARs and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO); however, it was also pointed out that there is an increasing trend in land falling AR IVT associated with warming SSTs in the far western tropical Pacific. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has also been shown to impact the strength of the subtropical jet and the associated location of Rossby wave breaking (RWB), which modulates moisture transport and precipitation ( Ryoo et al. 2013 ). Payne and

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James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Gabriele Villarini, Daniel B. Wright, and Witold Krajewski

spatial structure of heavy rainfall over Iowa. In our simulations, a two-domain nesting configuration is used and results are presented for the inner domain, which has a horizontal resolution of 3 km. Model physics options include 1) the Noah land surface model, 2) the Lin et al. microphysics scheme ( Skamarock et al. 2007 ), 3) the Mellor–Yamada–Janjić planetary boundary layer scheme, 4) the Goddard shortwave radiation scheme, and 5) the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) scheme for longwave

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Martin G. De Kauwe, Christopher M. Taylor, Philip P. Harris, Graham P. Weedon, and Richard. J. Ellis

space–time variability in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and thereby the initiation and propagation of mesoscale convective systems (e.g., Taylor et al. 2011 ). Observations have also shown that once a grass layer has developed in response to early rains, daily fluctuations in the partition of surface fluxes become suppressed, in turn affecting the buildup of convective instability over the course of the diurnal cycle ( Kohler et al. 2010 ). Figure 2 illustrates the seasonal evolution of the

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Erin Dougherty, Erin Sherman, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

1360 × 1016 grid point domain covering the CONUS and parts of Canada and Mexico. The horizontal grid spacing is 4 km and there are 51 stretched vertical levels up to 50 hPa. The WRF-CONUS parameterizations include the Thompson aerosol-aware microphysics ( Thompson and Eidhammer 2014 ), the Yonsei University (YSU) planetary boundary scheme ( Hong et al. 2006 ), the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) ( Iacono et al. 2008 ), and the Noah-MP land surface model ( Niu et al. 2011 ), which

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Pierre Gentine, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Fabio D'Andrea, and Michael Ek

. 1971 ). In turn, the change in the atmospheric state, mostly within the planetary boundary layer (PBL), affects the surface heat and moisture transport on possibly different spatial and temporal scales ( Boers et al. 1995 ; Raupach and Finnigan 1995 ; Wulfmeyer 1999 ; Petenko and Bezverkhnii 1999 ; Sorbjan 2008 ; Paradisi et al. 2012 ; Katul et al. 1994a , b , 1999 ; Katul and Parlange 1995 ). Boundary layer clouds exert an important radiative feedback onto the land surface through the

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