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Rosalind Cornforth, Douglas J. Parker, Mariane Diop-Kane, Andreas H. Fink, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Arlene Laing, Ernest Afiesimama, Jim Caughey, Aida Diongue-Niang, Abdou Kassimou, Peter Lamb, Benjamin Lamptey, Zilore Mumba, Ifeanyi Nnodu, Jerome Omotosho, Steve Palmer, Patrick Parrish, Leon-Guy Razafindrakoto, Wassila Thiaw, Chris Thorncroft, and Adrian Tompkins

possible. A second objective was to summarize the recent status of understanding of West African weather and climate systems across scales, from planetary to local (see, e.g., Lebel et al. 2010 ). As a consequence, The Forecasters’ Handbook is presented in a textbook style, with each chapter starting with the scientific background, followed by operational methods. A series of case studies provided by Météo-France are also available and updated in the online version (see Table 1 ), enhancing

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Gang Zhang, Kerry H. Cook, and Edward K. Vizy

, suggesting strong vertical mixing. Fig . 10. JJAS 2006 AF domain mean diurnal cycle of (a) low-level specific humidity (g kg −1 ) at different pressure levels and (b) geopotential height (colored lines; m) and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height (bold line; m) in MERRA. Figure 10b shows the diurnal cycle of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height over AF. The nocturnal PBL is below 975 hPa, while the afternoon PBL is well-developed up to 900 hPa. Therefore, the nocturnal atmospheric moisture from

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Wassila M. Thiaw and Vadlamani B. Kumar

along the Caprivi Strip in northeastern Namibia and neighboring areas (polygon area 5), while the development of a tropical wave disturbance was expected to result in flooding over west central Madagascar. The hazards outlooks are disseminated through the website and an e-mail distribution list. FEWSNET uses the information together with current climate forecasts and trends and other food security indicators to issue monthly food security outlooks. Finally, this information is provided to USAID for

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Kerry H. Cook and Edward K. Vizy

resolution and SSTAs [contour interval (CI): 0.25 K] as prescribed for the 21C simulation. The model domain, resolution, and physical parameterizations are chosen based on testing and include the Yonsei University planetary boundary layer ( Hong et al. 2006 ), Monin–Obukhov surface layer, new Kain–Fritsch cumulus convection ( Kain 2004 ), Purdue–Lin microphysics ( Chen and Sun 2002 ), Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) longwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), the Dudhia shortwave radiation ( Dudhia

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Lisa Hannak, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Anke Kniffka, and Gregor Pante

occasionally grow deep enough to produce significant precipitation. Through the strong contrast in brightness to the underlying densely vegetated areas, the low clouds have a substantial impact on the radiation balance at the surface and therefore determine the diurnal cycle of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) (e.g., Gounou et al. 2012 ). Related changes in surface gradients of equivalent potential temperature may have an impact on larger scales. For example, Zheng and Eltahir (1998) showed that the

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