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Stephen D. Eckermann, James D. Doyle, P. Alex Reinecke, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Ronald B. Smith, David C. Fritts, and Andreas Dörnbrack

. Semicontinuous breaking of gravity waves around the globe sustains planetary-scale forces that drive large-scale circulations and climate. Wave breaking is also the dominant source of turbulence and vertical mixing throughout the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere. In these and other ways, gravity waves affect weather and climate at all altitudes and across scales ( Fritts and Alexander 2003 ). Gravity waves exist over a broad range of horizontal wavelengths ( λ h ~ 5–1000 km), while breaking

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