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Brandon W. Kerns and Shuyi S. Chen

–Julian Oscillation, Kelvin wave, and equatorial Rossby wave . J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 4400 – 4416 . Molinari , J. , and D. Vollaro , 2000 : Planetary- and synoptic-scale influences on eastern Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3296–3307 . Nakazawa , T. , 1988 : Tropical super clusters within intraseasonal variations over the western Pacific . J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 66 , 823 – 839 . Ray , P. , and C. Zhang , 2010 : A case study of the mechanics of extratropical influence

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Jean-Philippe Duvel

1. Introduction The convectively active phase of a MJO event is a large-scale region covered by numerous synoptic-scale perturbations and convective systems of different sizes and durations. There are many examples showing how meso- to synoptic-scale convective systems may be organized in the active MJO phase (e.g., Nakazawa 1988 ; Chen et al. 1996 ; Katsumata et al. 2009 ). In particular, convective systems may be organized in large clusters possibly related to equatorial waves with periods

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George N. Kiladis, Juliana Dias, Katherine H. Straub, Matthew C. Wheeler, Stefan N. Tulich, Kazuyoshi Kikuchi, Klaus M. Weickmann, and Michael J. Ventrice

made in understanding and forecasting the MJO over the past four decades, it remains a significant outstanding problem in tropical meteorology (see Zhang et al. 2013 ). As discussed in detail by Straub (2013 , hereafter S13 ), one of the challenges faced by researchers studying the MJO has to do not only with tracking the disturbance through time, but simply defining it. This difficulty stems from the fact that the MJO is associated with strong planetary circulation anomalies, and similar

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Eric D. Skyllingstad and Simon P. de Szoeke

1. Introduction Within 10° latitude of the equator, organized atmospheric convection occurs across scales ranging from individual thunderstorm systems to planetary-scale disturbances such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). Understanding what drives these different scales is a key question for tropical weather prediction and accurate simulation of the atmospheric general circulation. At the cloud scale, we have a fairly good knowledge of convective system structure and the processes that

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