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Christopher G. Kruse, Ronald B. Smith, and Stephen D. Eckermann

playing a more secondary role in the extratropical stratosphere. The focus of this study is the propagation and attenuation of gravity waves within the extratropical stratosphere. In the stratosphere, the important equator-to-pole Brewer–Dobson circulation is driven by momentum deposited in the extratropics by both planetary-scale Rossby waves and GWs (e.g., Holton et al. 1995 ). Within chemistry–climate models, planetary waves are resolved while the smaller-scale GWs and their GWD are largely

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Johnathan J. Metz, Dale R. Durran, and Peter N. Blossey

1. Introduction Gravity wave activity with maximum amplitude in the stratosphere downstream of major mountain ranges has previously been explained as a result of wave breaking inducing secondary wave generation ( Bacmeister and Schoeberl 1989 ; Vadas et al. 2003 ), the trapping or partial trapping of gravity waves in a duct of high static stability in the tropopause inversion layer ( Smith et al. 2016 ; Fritts et al. 2018 ) or the vertical propagation of waves through this layer from below

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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

. Geleyn , 1982 : A short history of the operational PBL parameterization at ECMWF. Proc. Workshop on Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization , Reading, United Kingdom, ECMWF, 59 – 79 . McLandress , C. , T. G. Shepherd , S. Polavarapu , and S. R. Beagley , 2012 : Is missing orographic gravity wave drag near 60°S the cause of the stratospheric zonal wind biases in chemistry–climate models? J. Atmos. Sci. , 69 , 802 – 818 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-11-0159.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-11

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Christopher G. Kruse and Ronald B. Smith

1. Introduction It is well known that gravity waves (GWs) flux horizontal momentum vertically in Earth’s atmosphere, depositing momentum wherever they attenuate (e.g., Bretherton 1969 ; McLandress 1998 ; Alexander et al. 2010 ). Mountain waves (MWs), GWs generated by flow over mountains, attain this momentum flux (MF) through a pressure drag interaction with the mountains that generate them ( Miles 1969 ; Smith 1979 ). That is, as the atmosphere flows over mountains, a pressure drag is

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