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Ivana Stiperski and Vanda Grubišić

instability of steady mountain waves . J. Fluid Mech. , 568 , 303 – 327 . Louis , J. F. , 1979 : A parametric model of vertical eddy fluxes in the atmosphere . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 17 , 187 – 202 . Louis , J. F. , M. Tiedtke , and J. F. Geleyn , 1982 : A short history of the operational PBL parameterization at ECMWF . Proc. Workshop on Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization, Reading, United Kingdom, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, 59–79 . Mayr , G. J. , and A

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James D. Doyle and Dale R. Durran

: Lower turbulent zones associated with mountain lee waves. J. Appl. Meteor. , 13 , 54 – 61 . Lilly , D. K. , 1962 : On the numerical simulation of buoyant convection. Tellus , 14 , 148 – 172 . Louis , J. F. , 1979 : A parametric model of vertical eddy fluxes in the atmosphere. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 17 , 187 – 202 . Louis , J. F. , M. Tiedtke , and J. F. Geleyn , 1982 : A short history of the operational PBL-parameterization at ECMWF. Proc. Workshop on Planetary Boundary

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James D. Doyle, Vanda Grubišić, William O. J. Brown, Stephan F. J. De Wekker, Andreas Dörnbrack, Qingfang Jiang, Shane D. Mayor, and Martin Weissmann

results from very high-resolution numerical simulations presented in Doyle and Durran (2007) reveal the presence of turbulent, small-scale vortices that they refer to as subrotors , which may pose a significant aviation hazard because of their intensity. However, the existence of subrotor vortices has never been observationally confirmed as sufficient quantitative measurements to document even the basic characteristics of subrotors have been lacking. The Sierra Wave Project and its follow-on, the

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Bowen Zhou and Fotini Katopodes Chow

, when warming associated with wave troughs (downward-curving potential temperature isentropes) vanishes immediately after the wave passes. The latter usually occur on a much shorter time scale ~ O (1 min). Intermittent turbulence has been observed during field experiments since the last decade, yet its origin is not well understood. A few known mechanisms include passing density currents ( Sun et al. 2002 ), breaking shear-instability waves ( Newsom and Banta 2003 ), solitary waves and downward

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