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Onno Bokhove and Vijaya Ambati

1. Introduction There is evidence that planetary-scale Rossby waves have been generated off the western coast of the United States, either by unstable coastal boundary currents or by coastal waves matching in frequency and scale (cf. Kelly et al. 1998 ). Bokhove and Johnson (1999) , therefore, investigated the matching of planetary Rossby modes with coastal shelf modes in a cylindrical basin. Otherwise said, linear free modes were calculated with so-called semianalytical “mode matching

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Yafang Zhong and Zhengyu Liu

pumping response to the long-term PMV oceanic anomaly ( Liu et al. 2007 ; Zhong and Liu 2008 ) would then depress the thermocline or halocline and increase the ocean dynamic height. The thermocline or halocline anomaly then propagates westward across the basin via planetary waves ( Schneider et al. 2002 ). This wind-forced response can be seen in the evolution of dynamic height at 250-m depth in Fig. 7 . In response to a cold anomaly in the KOE, an anomalous cyclonic wind curl forcing and resultant

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K. Shafer Smith and John Marshall

planetary waves being advected eastward by the mean current. 2 Equatorward of the ACC the waves travel from east to west, as is found in the rest of the oceanic basins ( Chelton and Schlax 1996 ). Both the alongstream average current and the wave speeds are plotted in Fig. 2 to summarize the observations. The vertical structure of the mean current, shown in Fig. 3 , along with the wave speed observations in Fig. 2 suggest that the steering level is at a depth of about 1 km. An analysis of the

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Baylor Fox-Kemper and Raffaele Ferrari

introduces the Parsons model and subsequent sections discuss impacts of eddies on the resulting ocean circulation. 2. Eddy–mean flow interaction in layered models We consider a layered, rigid-lid, shallow-water, Boussinesq flow on a β plane: The upper layer is i = 1, and the i th layer has depth h i , horizontal velocity u i , and vertical planetary ( f = f 0 z + βy z ) and relative ( ∇ × u i ≡ ζ i ) vorticity. The ∇ operates within a layer along two dimensions. Wind stress and

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Carl Wunsch and Patrick Heimbach

general circulation model (GCM), described the behavior of the MOC in the Atlantic at 25°N between 1993 and 2004, concluding that there were apparent weak trends of changing signs at various depths in the meridional volume transport but that there was no evidence for a significant trend in the enthalpy (temperature) transport. But climate is global, and the NA-MOC is a small part of the ocean circulation that can only be understood in the wider context. Here we examine the planetary zonally integrated

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Michael A. Spall

net vertical volume flux in interior regions of deep convection, although there is a vertical density flux ( Send and Marshall 1995 ). Consideration of the vorticity balance quickly reveals that to get any significant downwelling in the ocean interior, one must generate either large relative vorticity ( Send and Marshall 1995 ) or a large recirculating gyre that advects planetary vorticity ( Spall and Pickart 2001 ), neither of which is observed in the ocean. So, one must look elsewhere to find

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