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Paolo Ghinassi, Georgios Fragkoulidis, and Volkmar Wirth

1. Introduction An important feature of midlatitude atmospheric dynamics is the existence of upper-tropospheric Rossby waves with synoptic- to planetary-scale wavenumbers. Often a Rossby wave is not strictly circumglobal; rather, its amplitude is spatially inhomogeneous with a relative maximum at a specific location decaying to smaller values at larger distances. This gives rise to so-called Rossby wave packets [RWPs; for a recent review see Wirth et al. (2018) ]. A key feature of RWPs is the

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Peter Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Andreas Schlueter, and Tilmann Gneiting

organization and coupling to larger-scale circulations. The most important example of such a coupling on weather time scales are equatorial waves, classically referring to planetary-scale solutions of the shallow water equations for the tropics ( Matsuno 1966 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ). The coupling relies on a wave-induced modification of environmental conditions for convection such as convergence, stability, moisture availability, and shear ( Schlueter et al. 2019a , b ). Although a relatively high

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Marlene Baumgart, Paolo Ghinassi, Volkmar Wirth, Tobias Selz, George C. Craig, and Michael Riemer

phase. Beyond this synoptic-scale phase saturation at long lead times (beyond 2 weeks), the results of Buizza and Leutbecher (2015) indicate that there is still forecast skill for large-scale fields. To investigate error growth up to the planetary scale, we employ a complementary diagnostic that filters out phase information and identifies the envelope of the upper-level Rossby waves. This diagnostic is based on finite-amplitude local wave activity (LWA) in the primitive-equation, isentropic

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Georgios Fragkoulidis and Volkmar Wirth

1. Introduction Rossby waves are a dominant feature of the midlatitude upper-tropospheric circulation at synoptic to planetary scales ( Rossby 1940 ; Haurwitz 1940 ). Owing their existence to the rotation and the spherical shape of Earth, they take the form of large-scale meanders in the westerly winds ( Rhines 2015 ). On the weather time scale, Rossby wave activity typically varies in longitude and time and tends to organize in the so-called Rossby wave packets (RWPs), rather than

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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, and Peter Vogel

( Matsuno 1966 ). Two other major wave types have been observed in the tropical belt that are not obtained from the shallow-water equations: the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 ) and westward traveling tropical disturbances (TDs) including easterly waves ( Riehl 1945 ). All these waves are collectively termed “tropical waves” in this paper. The spatiotemporal scales range from planetary and 30–90 days in the case of the MJO to synoptic and 1–3 days in the case of inertio

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

wavenumber, which measures the number of full wavelengths as one goes around the globe. Planetary-scale Rossby waves are typically characterized by zonal wavenumbers , whereas synoptic-scale Rossby waves are characterized by higher wavenumbers. Another idealized incarnation of a Rossby wave would be a single trough or ridge being equivalent to a single dipole of υ . However, except in very rare cases, a Rossby wave appears neither as a purely sinusoidal circumglobal wave nor as a single trough or ridge

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Tobias Selz

background spectrum and thus likely involve a climatological component. For example, orography and the land–sea distribution may hinder the largest planetary waves from freely evolving. In addition the ICON simulations have fixed sea surface temperatures. d. Comparison to simulations with a deterministic convection scheme A second set of simulations has been performed using the ICON model but this time in its standard setup with the deterministic TB convection scheme ( Bechtold et al. 2001 ). With this

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Jacopo Riboldi, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Heather M. Archambault

. As in Fig. 3 , but for the N = 49 recurving TCs in the DECEL subset. Fig . 15. As in Fig. 3 , but for the N = 49 recurving TCs in the ACCEL subset. The planetary wave pattern strongly influences where the genesis of atmospheric blocking occurs. It still needs to be assessed whether significant differences in planetary-scale flow, which could be related to the different observed blocking patterns, exist between ACCEL and DECEL. For instance, the presence of significantly positive over

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Mirjam Hirt, Stephan Rasp, Ulrich Blahak, and George C. Craig

for a deceleration of the flow by unresolved orography, either by modifying the roughness length or by including an orographic drag term. Here, we aim to account for the mechanical lifting caused by SSO and its effect on convective initiation with a newly developed stochastic perturbation scheme, called SSOSP. The new scheme closely follows the formulation of the PSP scheme: wind tendencies are randomly perturbed with an amplitude that scales with theoretical gravity waves excited by SSO

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Toward a Systematic Evaluation of Warm Conveyor Belts in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Models. Part I: Predictor Selection and Logistic Regression Model

Julian F. Quinting and Christian M. Grams

. 2020 ). Thus, an adequate representation of WCBs is desirable in NWP and climate models. First introduced by Browning et al. (1973) and Harrold (1973) , WCBs are defined as cyclone-relative airstreams that ascend from the planetary boundary layer to the upper troposphere along vertically sloping isentropic surfaces. Assuming the absence of nonconservative forces, early studies identified WCBs using cyclone-relative streamlines on a wet-bulb potential temperature surface (e.g., Harrold 1973

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