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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

rising profiler or a glider demonstrate enhanced near-surface turbulence during daytime ( Sutherland et al. 2016 ; St. Laurent and Merrifield 2017 ). The enhancement is attributed to shear and internal waves induced by the diurnal thermocline. It is this turbulence that drives the daytime descent of the DWL and hence controls the mixed layer heat budget. Here we characterize near-surface turbulence dissipation ϵ and turbulent heat fluxes using recent measurements from a surface-following platform

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

, we chose MT instead of pure MRG waves ( Matsuno 1966 ) in this study. Table 1. The range of planetary zonal wavenumber, period, and equivalent depth chosen for filtering waves and their corresponding reference. Positive (negative) planetary zonal wavenumber indicates eastward (westward) propagation. MJO and MT do not follow the dispersion curve so the equivalent depths are not calculated. c. Diurnal cycle analysis To analyze the diurnal variation of precipitation, the dates are separated into

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

surface currents of 0.8 m s −1 associated with oceanic downwelling equatorial Rossby waves ( Rydbeck et al. 2017 ). Such currents might increase the speed differential at the ocean and atmosphere interface leading to enhanced latent heat fluxes. An additional simplification of the idealized CM1 simulations is the exclusion of planetary vorticity. While omitted in these simulations, the Coriolis force modulates the low-level divergence tendency [terms v and vi of Eq. (1) ]. Moreover, large

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

surface water was typically advected 3 km farther per day than water at 30 m. The shear that occurs between the diurnal jet and the mixed layer (0.03 s −1 ; Sutherland et al. 2016 ; Bogdanoff 2017 ) is comparable to that found in estuarine flows (0.05 s −1 ; Stacey and Pond 1997 ), at the base of internal solitary waves (0.05 s −1 ; Moum et al. 2003 ), and in the sheared layer above the equatorial undercurrent (0.02 s −1 ; Smyth et al. 2013 ). Under weak forcing (wind < 2 m s −1 ), clear sky, and

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

1. Introduction Deep convective structures populate the tropics, provide the energetics that drive the large-scale tropical circulation, and interact with superimposed atmospheric waves ( Riehl and Malkus 1957 ; Lorenz 1969 ; Hendon and Liebmann 1991 ; Kiladis and Weickmann 1992 ; Chang 1995 ; Lane et al. 2001 ; Fierro et al. 2009 ). The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 , 1994 ; Zhang 2005 ) is one such disturbance, and while the MJO is commonly defined

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

-inertial currents from the mixed layer to subsurface depths with the help of modal decomposition. He showed that the rotation of a given vertical mode depends on the mode number. The estimated decay scale for the n th mode to become 90° out of phase with a wave rotating at the inertial frequency is where is local inertial frequency, are the horizontal wavenumber and is the phase speed of the n th mode. D’Asaro (1989) showed that in the presence of the planetary vorticity gradient β , the decay time

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