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Yu Zhang and Joseph Pedlosky

main mechanism of decay, and the basic wave breaks down rapidly into an eddy field before it reaches the western boundary. By considering the parametric dependence of the ratio on latitude, possible only on the planetary scale, one could draw the conclusion that Z increases toward the high-latitude regions as the Coriolis parameter increases northward, which, as suggested by LaCasce and Pedlosky, is the reason for the confinement of wave patterns found in satellite measurements. This argument is

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Andrew J. Willmott and Estanislao Gavilan Pascual-Ahuir

relation for divergent barotropic planetary waves in a flat bottom polar basin. In related meteorological studies, Haurwitz (1975) and Bridger and Stevens (1980) use cylindrical polar coordinates to study freely propagating waves in a high-latitude atmosphere. The concept of the delta ( δ )-plane approximation for quasigeostrophic dynamics at high latitudes was developed by Harlander (2005) . Harlander (2005) demonstrates that the high-latitude δ -plane model can be consistently derived from

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Allan J. Clarke and Marcelo Dottori

. , 1998 : On “too fast” baroclinic planetary waves in the general circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 28 , 1739 – 1758 . Dewar , W. K. , and M. Y. Morris , 2000 : On the propagation of baroclinic waves in the general circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 30 , 2637 – 2649 . Ebisuzaki , W. , 1997 : A method to estimate the statistical significance of a correlation when the data are serially correlated. J. Climate , 10 , 2147 – 2153 . Enfield , D. B. , and J. S. Allen , 1980 : On

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William K. Dewar

470JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHYVOLUME 17Planetary Shock Waves WILLIAM I~ DEWARDepartment of Oceanography and Supercomputer Conlputations Research Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306(Manuscript received 27 May 1986, in final form 26 September 1986) A number of general circulation models have recently been proposed that compute the steady.slate structureof the general circulation. Observations of 18-C water formation, on the other hand, su

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W. K. Dewar

1. Introduction The wind and buoyantly driven general circulation is a highly time-dependent entity. In addition to internal modes of variability, for example, generated by mean flow instability, the large scale is subject to variable forcing in both momentum and heat fluxes. The ocean, when faced with changing conditions, responds with planetary waves that facilitate its adjustment. In many situations, these propagators take the form of long, nondispersive, baroclinic planetary waves of

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Roxana C. Wajsowicz

APIUL1986 ROXANA C. WAJSOWICZ 773Free Planetary Waves in Finite-Difference Numerical Models ROXANA C. WAJSOWICZ*Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Program, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540(Manuscript received 26 October 1984, in final form 16 October 1985)ABSTRACT The effects of spatial finite-differencing, viscosity and diffusion on unbounded planetary waves in numericalmodels are

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Peter D. Killworth, Dudley B. Chelton, and Roland A. de Szoeke

1. Introduction Planetary, or Rossby, waves play a fundamental part in the spinup of the ocean, the maintenance of western boundary layers, and many other features. They owe their existence to variation in the Coriolis parameter, which permits propagation along great-circle waveguides in a westward sense. Unlike rapid coastal Kelvin waves, planetary waves move slowly, at typical speeds of a few centimeters per second. Location of such waves in patchy temperature data required careful attention

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R. M. Samelson

consistently to generate undercurrent flows in the right locations with the right qualitative and quantitative characteristics, is that proposed by McCreary (1981) and subsequently extended by McCreary et al. (1987 , 1992) . In this conception, the undercurrent is viewed as a geostrophic current in a stratified interior-ocean domain in which the dominant dynamics are linear planetary wave propagation, subject perhaps also to the influence of turbulent frictional processes. Motion in the interior domain

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Zhengyu Liu

variability motivated us to reexamine the dynamics of planetary waves in the presence of a thermocline circulation. Liu (1998) suggested that the different features of variability may be associated with two types of planetary wave modes in the extratropical ocean: the non-Doppler-shift mode (N mode) and the advective mode (A mode). The N mode resembles the first baroclinic mode and propagates westward regardless of the mean flow. The A mode resembles the second baroclinic mode and tends to follow the

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Roland A. de Szoeke and Dudley B. Chelton

1. Introduction Evidence is mounting for the ubiquitous occurrence of large-scale low-frequency westward-propagatingbaroclinic planetary waves in low to mid latitudes ( Freeland et al. 1975 ; White 1977 , 1985 and references therein; Kessler 1990 ; Périgaud and Delecluse 1992 ; van Woert and Price 1993 ; LeTraon and Minster 1993 ; Aoki et al. 1995 ; Chelton and Schlax 1996 ; Cippollini et al. 1997 ). Quantitative attempts to account for the propagation speed of these waves by simple

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