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Ronald M. Errico, George Ohring, Fuzhong Weng, Peter Bauer, Brad Ferrier, Jean-François Mahfouf, and Joe Turk

) measurements are affected by sensitivity to the highly variable land surface emissivity and similar optical properties of cloud water and light rainfall that limit the detectability and retrieval accuracy of either component. Current observations also lack sensitivity to drizzle and snowfall. Specific workshop recommendations regarding observations include 1) expanding the use of ARM site observations and conducting well-planned field campaigns to provide better validation of satellite cloud and

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Graeme L. Stephens and Christian D. Kummerow

many others). A better understanding of the microphysical properties of rainfall is needed to constrain passive microwave algorithms and is one of the underlying bases of the planned Global Precipitation Mission ( Smith et al. 2002 ). This mission concept includes a dual-frequency radar as part of the core satellite with the intent to provide a more explicit source of information about the microphysical state of the precipitation. The remote sensing not only of precipitation microphysics but also

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Peter M. Norris and Arlindo M. da Silva

process. Although the convective cloud fraction (unlike the convective rainfall) is generally significantly smaller than the stratiform component in the CCM3, the possibility of adjusting convective cloud fraction parameters remains and will be investigated in the future. Convective parameter estimation will be better addressed once planned changes to the convective cloud parameterization have introduced a tighter coupling between the convective core and anvil/stratiform portions of convective systems

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Philippe Lopez

large geographical coverage from various spaceborne instruments such as the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), or platforms such as the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) or the Aqua satellite. Future missions including the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM; planned in 2010) mission and CloudSat (launched in April 2006) are expected to provide better spatial and temporal samplings and more information about the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation thanks to their

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Chinnawat Surussavadee and David H. Staelin

models than are the radiances, provided that the retrieval method is tuned to reality. These model-sensitivity results are most relevant to imaging microwave spectrometers such as the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar orbiting satellites NOAA-15 , NOAA-16 , NOAA-17 , and NOAA-18 ( Hewison and Saunders 1996 ; Mo 1999 ; Chen and Staelin 2003 ; Ferraro et al. 2005 ), and its planned successor, the Advanced Technology

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