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Don Cline, Simon Yueh, Bruce Chapman, Boba Stankov, Al Gasiewski, Dallas Masters, Kelly Elder, Richard Kelly, Thomas H. Painter, Steve Miller, Steve Katzberg, and Larry Mahrt

ground; M and M 0 = percent soil moisture for snow-covered and bare ground, estimated from in situ measurements (also included in the dataset); and A = radiation attenuation coefficient in water (cm 2 g −1 ). The North Park GAMMA flight plan consisted of 28 parallel series of three 9-km flight lines, with each series spaced 1 km apart. Together, these 84 individual SWE samples provide coverage of approximately 30% of the land area in the MSA. In the Rabbit Ears MSA (22 flight lines) and the

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Glen E. Liston, Daniel L. Birkenheuer, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Donald W. Cline, and Kelly Elder

Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); the Japan Science and Technology Corporation; and the National Assembly for Wales, Strategic Research Investment Fund. A portion of this work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, which was under contract to NASA. More than 200 people participated in the planning and execution of CLPX 2002/03. Their efforts are very much appreciated. The authors would also like to thank Stan Benjamin, John McGinley, and Richard

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Kelly Elder, Angus Goodbody, Don Cline, Paul Houser, Glen E. Liston, Larry Mahrt, and Nick Rutter

Service Rocky Mountain Research Station; the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); the Japan Science and Technology Corporation; and the National Assembly for Wales, Strategic Research Investment Fund, Cardiff University. A portion of this study was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, under a contract to NASA. More than 200 people participated in the planning and execution of CLPX 2002/03. Their efforts are very much appreciated. Special

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Kelly Elder, Don Cline, Glen E. Liston, and Richard Armstrong

in the planned data collection. However, the objectives were very nearly met in most cases. Extreme weather during IOP3 and IOP4 made travel in deep new snow extremely arduous and difficult. With new snow depths exceeding 1 m, safety concerns were critical and travel times between sample points increased dramatically, thereby limiting the quantity of data that could be collected. An examination of datasets and metadata at National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) indicate actual data acquired. b

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Robert E. Davis, Thomas H. Painter, Rick Forster, Don Cline, Richard Armstrong, Terry Haran, Kyle McDonald, and Kelly Elder

Research Investment Fund, Cardiff University. A portion of this work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. More than 200 people participated in the planning and execution of CLPX 2002/03. Their efforts are very much appreciated. We would also like to thank the two anonymous and thorough reviewers who helped to improve the manuscript. REFERENCES Brodzik, M. J. , 2003a : CLPX-satellite: SSM/I brightness temperature grids

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Jeffrey S. Deems, Steven R. Fassnacht, and Kelly J. Elder

-1085(199910)13:14/15<2149::AID-HYP847>3.0.CO;2-8 Brooks, P. D. , and Williams M. , 1999 : Snowpack controls on nitrogen cycling and export in seasonally snow-covered catchments. Hydrol. Processes , 13 , 2177 – 2190 . 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(199910)13:14/15<2177::AID-HYP850>3.0.CO;2-V Cline, D. , Armstrong R. , Davis R. , Elder K. J. , and Liston G. , cited . 2001 : NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment plan. [Available online at http://www.nohrsc.nws.gov/~cline/clpx.html .] . Cline, D. , and

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Richard Essery, Peter Bunting, Aled Rowlands, Nick Rutter, Janet Hardy, Rae Melloh, Tim Link, Danny Marks, and John Pomeroy

under the canopy on clear and cloudy days in section 4 . Because the spatially explicit model is too computationally expensive to run for large areas or long times, efficient parameterizations of radiation statistics are sought in section 5 . Finally, section 6 presents conclusions and discusses future plans. 2. Site and data description The Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) was conducted in Colorado during the winters of 2002 and 2003. Data used in this study were obtained at the Local

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Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Kelly Elder, and Donald W. Cline

errors are relatively small compared with deeper SWE. In contrast, the relative error for shallow snowpacks can approach the actual SWE. Furthermore, the likelihood that this assumption is incorrect increases in areas with shallow snowpacks, where soil moisture can change rapidly throughout the winter as snow arrives and melts and the resulting soil moisture evaporates. The North Park GAMMA flight plan consisted of 28 parallel series of three 9-km flight lines, with each series spaced 1 km apart

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Susan Frankenstein, Anne Sawyer, and Julie Koeberle

: Integration of satellite sensor data with DEM for the study of snow cover distribution and depletion pattern. Int. J. Remote Sens. , 18 , 3889 – 3894 . 10.1080/014311697216711 Cline, D. , Armstrong R. , Davis R. , Elder K. , and Liston G. , 2001 : NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment plan 2001–2004. [Available online at http://www.nohrsc.nws.gov/~cline/clpx.html .] . Cline, D. , and Coauthors , 2003 : Overview of the NASA cold land processes field experiment (CLPX-2002

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Jicheng Liu, Curtis E. Woodcock, Rae A. Melloh, Robert E. Davis, Ceretha McKenzie, and Thomas H. Painter

data show general agreement with the height values from the field measurements. The use of airborne lidar data provides a way to parameterize the GORT model over landscapes that is not feasible using field measurements. Acknowledgments This research was supported by the U.S. Army. The efforts of the more than 200 people who participated in the planning and execution of CLPX 2002-2003 are very much appreciated. The CLPX was funded through the cooperation of many agencies and organizations including

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