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Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Christopher Bretherton, Christian Schwartz, Edwin Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Shaunna Donaher, Mampi Sarkar, Jeremy McGibbon, Alison D. Nugent, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, Patrick Minnis, Robindra Paliknoda, Louis Lussier, Jorgen Jensen, J. Vivekanandan, Scott Ellis, Peisang Tsai, Robert Rilling, Julie Haggerty, Teresa Campos, Meghan Stell, Michael Reeves, Stuart Beaton, John Allison, Gregory Stossmeister, Samuel Hall, and Sebastian Schmidt

of the drop releases were sent from the flight scientist on the GV to the CSET home base in Sacramento, California, where an operator would send instructions to the GV to trigger the sonde launches at the designated points. Supporting tools and observations. A key element of CSET was the field catalog (see sidebar for additional information). The field catalog was used extensively for mission planning, real-time access to aircraft observations, and satellite products during the missions, and for

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Patrik Benáček and Máté Mile

in boundary layers at the 95% significance level, with the largest normalized RMS impact of 1% with respect to CAM100. A significant degradation was also detected for the short-term (6–18 h) forecast of temperature in boundary layers, with the largest normalized RMS impact of 0.3%. In future years, it is planned to assimilate the particular polar-orbiting satellite instruments into the operational ALADIN/CHMI model together with the VarBC scheme. Based on the results of this paper, the VarBC

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Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Andrew Gettelman, Charles G. Bardeen, Bruce A. Albrecht, and Paquita Zuidema

dashed red line is the approximate route of the MAGIC container ship, the thick solid yellow line indicates the reference axis of the lon′ coordinate described in section 2c , and the thin solid yellow lines show lon′ in 8° increments. CSET sampling provided an unprecedentedly rich and extensive suite of observations of the cloud-topped boundary layer between California and Hawaii. The CSET flight plans were based on a Lagrangian low-level sampling strategy for the eastbound flights, as described by

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Johannes Mohrmann, Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Jeremy McGibbon, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Bruce Albrecht, Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, and Rabindra Palikonda

California to Hawaii, tracking trajectories initialized on the RF08 flight path, and subsequent RF09 return flight intercepting the trajectories (for CSET, even-numbered flights were outbound CA-HI, and odd-numbered flights were return HI-CA). Distortion of the sampled line due to regions of convergence and divergence resulted in a dog-leg (kink in flight path) in RF09. The flight plans were chosen so that the return flight resampled 500 m constant-level trajectories from the outbound flight, calculated

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Robert Wood, Kuan-Ting O, Christopher S. Bretherton, Johannes Mohrmann, Bruce. A. Albrecht, Paquita Zuidema, Virendra Ghate, Chris Schwartz, Ed Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, and Patrick Minnis

RF15 showing the concentration N a of aerosol particles larger than 0.1 μ m (UHSAS) from all clear samples. Boxes highlight the presence of UCLs (blue colors). RFs 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 are outbound (westward) flights, and RFs 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 are the corresponding return (eastward) flights flown 2 days later. Thus, RF02 and RF03 form a “mission pair” such that the RF03 flight plan was designed to resample approximately 48 h later the air masses observed on RF02 advected using

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Jenny V. Turton, Thomas Mölg, and Dirk Van As

radiation. Therefore, ice melt may be initiated, if only for a short period, during the warm-air events. While detailed analyses of SEB patterns and their driving atmospheric influences over 79N and the northeast ice stream are planned for future work, this study presents a first glance at the potential links between the warm-air events and surface melting. Because of the multiple processes at play, the influence of the warm-air events on the surface energy and mass balances is complicated, yet, because

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Bradley W. Klotz and David S. Nolan

. , 142 , 2814 – 2837 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-13-00337.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-13-00337.1 OFCM , 2012 : National Hurricane Operations Plan. U.S. Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Rep. FCM-P-2012, 168 pp. Pollard , R. T. , P. B. Rhines , and R. Thompson , 1972 : The deepening of the wind-mixed layer . Geophys. Fluid Dyn. , 4 , 381 – 404 , https://doi.org/10.1080/03091927208236105 . 10.1080/03091927208236105 Powell , M. D. , and P. G. Black

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