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Stephen D. Eckermann, James D. Doyle, P. Alex Reinecke, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Ronald B. Smith, David C. Fritts, and Andreas Dörnbrack

instruments on the National Science Foundation (NSF)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Gulfstream V research aircraft (NGV; Laursen et al. 2006 ). Yet this very lack of observational knowledge about gravity waves that spurred DEEPWAVE also complicated logistical planning for an NGV-based gravity wave measurement campaign: for example, identifying the best site and time of year; designing near-real-time flight-planning strategies to locate, intercept, and observe specific aspects of gravity

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

shown in Fig. 1 (bottom). Figure 2 shows the extent of all DEEPWAVE measurements in altitude and latitude. F ig . 2. North–south cross section showing the types of airborne and ground-based instruments contributing to DEEPWAVE measurements and their coverage in latitude and altitude. DEEPWAVE began with a test flight-planning exercise from 1 to 10 August 2013 to gain experience with forecasting and flight planning and to assess the reliability of such forecasts in preparation for the real field

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Dave Broutman, Jun Ma, James D. Doyle, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Katrina Bossert, Bifford P. Williams, David C. Fritts, and Ronald B. Smith

). Fritts et al. (2016) review the planning, execution, and initial results of DEEPWAVE. One of the many scientific objectives of DEEPWAVE was to acquire gravity wave observations to test recent ideas that gravity waves generated by small island terrain in the Southern Ocean significantly influence the large-scale momentum budget of the middle atmosphere in austral winter. This idea first arose when Alexander et al. (2009) analyzed radiances acquired by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the

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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

far to the southeast with significant amplitude at 15 km, but do at 45 km. This is consistent with the RF07 observations in Fig. 5 , which showed strong wave responses at 12 km only for the flight leg close to the terrain (cf. Figs. 5d and 5g ), whereas both AIRS and the lidar data showed strong wave responses near 45 km on all flight legs ( Figs. 5b,c,e,f ). Fig . 7. Plan views of w (color shading) and wind vectors at (a) 4 km (interval: 0.05 m s −1 ), (b) 9 km (interval: 0.02 m s −1 ), (c

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Benjamin Witschas, Stephan Rahm, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes Wagner, and Markus Rapp

-wave part but additionally shows an influence on the shorter wavelengths. In the future, it is planned to adapt the scan pattern of the lidar measuring consecutively with a certain off-nadir angle with forward/backward pointing beams with respect to the flight direction. Such a procedure may enable measuring the horizontal wind speed in the flight direction and the vertical wind speed with a high horizontal resolution of a few hundred meters and thus giving the possibility of estimating the vertical

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

.3%). Altogether, the trough group regimes were underrepresented compared to results from the 40-yr climatology of Kidson (2000) . Many DEEPWAVE aircraft mountain wave missions were conducted during the TNW regime. On 5 out of 7 days, when the TNW regime occurred in June and July 2014, aircraft missions were devoted to observe deep propagating orographic gravity waves and in the majority of cases significant and strong mountain wave activity was found ( Table 1 ). During the flight planning process, the weak

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Jun Ma, Karl W. Hoppel, David D. Kuhl, Douglas R. Allen, James A. Doyle, Kevin C. Viner, Benjamin C. Ruston, Nancy L. Baker, Steven D. Swadley, Timothy R. Whitcomb, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Liang Xu, N. Kaifler, B. Kaifler, Iain M. Reid, Damian J. Murphy, and Peter T. Love

)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Gulfstream V research aircraft (NGV; Laursen et al. 2006 ). As shown in Fig. 1b , during DEEPWAVE, the NGV was equipped with in situ and remote sensing instruments with the necessary vertical range, space–time resolution, and measurement precision to observe gravity wave dynamics over most of the 0–100-km altitude range. NGV observing missions were planned and supported by a suite of gravity wave–resolving numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems ( Fig. 1b

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