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  • DYNAMO/CINDY/AMIE/LASP: Processes, Dynamics, and Prediction of MJO Initiation x
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Jennifer L. Davison

al. (2013) . One of the primary goals of ACDC was to thoroughly investigate the moisture structure of the pre-MJO environment in order to assess the likelihood that changes in the lower-tropospheric moisture structure could act as a trigger mechanism for MJO onset. One tool for investigating changes in moisture structure is Bragg scattering layer (BSL) analysis. BSL analysis is a procedure to extract moisture-structure information from S-band radar by analyzing plan position indicator (PPI

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Kacie E. Hoover, John R. Mecikalski, Timothy J. Lang, Xuanli Li, Tyler J. Castillo, and Themis Chronis

, power levels, and even the time range of simulations. For this study, the E2ES configuration was set to defaults that mimicked the planned prelaunch orbits and sampling parameters for the constellation. The E2ES consists of several modes of operation that provide various outputs. This study used the dynamic mode, which represents a full simulation that includes the entire GPS and CYGNSS constellation’s orbits with time-varying wind fields. A 1-s sampling frequency for each CYGNSS observatory was set

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Kunio Yoneyama, Chidong Zhang, and Charles N. Long

contributions to the planning and operation of the field campaign (far too numerous to mention all here), especially Tim Bates, Alan Brewer, Shuyi Chen, Paul Ciesielski, Tony Del Genio, Jean-Philippe Duvel, James Edson, Scott Ellis, Chris Fairall, Jon Gottschalck, Robert Houze Jr., Richard Johnson, Masaki Katsumata, Djamal Khelif, Prasanna Kumar, Ren-Chieh Lien, Eric Maloney, Adrian Matthews, Peter May, Sally McFarlane, Pat Minnis, James Moum, Tomoe Nasuno, Robert Pinkel, Courtney Schumacher, Steve Rutledge

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Nick Guy and David P. Jorgensen

the DYNAMO quadrilateral observational domain. The red boxes indicate the position in time and space of RCE modules. The eastward-propagating precipitation maximum within the DYNAMO domain from 22 to 25 Nov is an MJO event. While the P-3 attempted to intercept the strongest MCSs, it should be noted that missions were planned using forecasted precipitation and refined based upon infrared satellite imagery preceding takeoff. Once the flight mission was in progress, individual MCS targets (i

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Sue Chen, Maria Flatau, Tommy G. Jensen, Toshiaki Shinoda, Jerome Schmidt, Paul May, James Cummings, Ming Liu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Christopher W. Fairall, Ren-Chieh Lien, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Nan-Hsun Chi, Simon de Szoeke, and James Edson

descending branches of the MRG circulation as well as regions of enhanced surface fluxes. The positive RH anomalies form a more continuous sinusoidal pattern that connects the separate maxima located in either hemisphere. This is similar to the positive anomalies in the zonal flow component, suggesting the development of an oscillating moist low-level zonal jet structure that straddles the equatorial region. Fig . 16. A horizontal plan view of the idealized MRG structure taken at 96 h into the simulation

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Hungjui Yu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Junhong Wang, Hung-Chi Kuo, Holger Vömel, and Ruud Dirksen

Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The Earth Observer, No. 24, Earth Observing System Project Science Office, Greenbelt, MD, 12–18. [Available online at http://pmm.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/document_files/Earth_Observer_Jan_2012_MC3E.pdf .] Seidel, D. J. , and Coauthors , 2009 : Reference upper-air observations for climate: Rationale, progress, and plans . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 90 , 361 – 369 , doi: 10.1175/2008BAMS2540.1 . Thomas, I. D. , King M. A. , Clarke P. J. , and Penna

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Weixin Xu and Steven A. Rutledge

° plan position indicator (PPI) sweeps. Five manually selected vertical cross sections [range height indicator (RHI)] were also obtained during each 10-min cycle to sample the vertical structure of various precipitation features. Note that the Revelle radar beamwidth is 1.5° and its maximum unambiguous range is 150 km. The elevation angles in the PPI volume ranged from 0.8° to 21.5° in the so-called FAR mode ( Fig. 1a ) and from 0.8° to 35.9° in the NEAR mode (not shown), while elevation angles of

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Kai-Chih Tseng, Chung-Hsiung Sui, and Tim Li

the DYNAMO/CINDY project who make the observation and analysis data available, especially Chi-Dong Zhang for his leadership in planning and carrying out the experiment. We also thank Po-Hsuing Lin, Wei-Ting Chen, and Chien-Ming Wu of the National Taiwan University for discussion of scientific issues. This research was fund by National Sciences Council in Taiwan. KCT and CHS were supported by the NSC under Grants NSC 102-2745-M-002-003-ASP. REFERENCES Andersen , J. A. , and Z. Kuang , 2012

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George N. Kiladis, Juliana Dias, Katherine H. Straub, Matthew C. Wheeler, Stefan N. Tulich, Kazuyoshi Kikuchi, Klaus M. Weickmann, and Michael J. Ventrice

. (2008) . Such an approach may even be useful for the development of alternative retrospective MJO metrics, since spectral ringing effects would be reduced by not using future data in the calculation of filtered indices. We plan to pursue such an approach in future work. 6. Discussion and conclusions As discussed in detail by S13 and Ling et al. (2013) , objectively identifying individual MJO events and their initiation is problematic. This is despite the fact that even for MJO indices that are

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Walter M. Hannah, Brian E. Mapes, and Gregory S. Elsaesser

have a large effect on the estimate of the LCT or apparent moisture sink at this time. Fig . 6. Plan view of CWV and 800-hPa wind vectors from (a) DYNAMO sounding data, (b) ECMWF, and (c) MIMIC at 0000 UTC 11 Oct 2011. Another illustrative example can be seen at 0000 UTC 7 December 2011, during the buildup to the third MJO event observed by the NSA ( Fig. 7 ). At this time there is northerly flow across most of the NSA, up the meridional water vapor gradient. The pattern of the wind field and CWV

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