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  • Global Drought Information System - Drought Characterization, Occurrence, Driving Mechanisms, and Predictability Worldwide (GDIS Worldwide) x
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Belen Rodríguez-Fonseca, Elsa Mohino, Carlos R. Mechoso, Cyril Caminade, Michela Biasutti, Marco Gaetani, J. Garcia-Serrano, Edward K. Vizy, Kerry Cook, Yongkang Xue, Irene Polo, Teresa Losada, Leonard Druyan, Bernard Fontaine, Juergen Bader, Francisco J. Doblas-Reyes, Lisa Goddard, Serge Janicot, Alberto Arribas, William Lau, Andrew Colman, M. Vellinga, David P. Rowell, Fred Kucharski, and Aurore Voldoire

routinely issue operational forecasts for rainy season totals ( Graham et al. 2011 ). The forecasts are freely available for national meteorological services, regional climate centers, and global product centers via www.wmolc.org . Over the African region, the skill of these long-range forecasting systems to predict seasonal total rainfall is high enough to make them useful for planning purposes. An example of the practical use of long-range forecasts and postprocessing techniques is the Prévisions

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Omar V. Müller, Ernesto Hugo Berbery, Domingo Alcaraz-Segura, and Michael B. Ek

, and dynamic (growing) vegetation, among other upgrades ( Niu et al. 2011 ). A desired next step will be to combine the methodology presented here with the future Noah-MP. One additional consideration is that, for operational numerical weather prediction and seasonal climate forecasting, EFTs need to smoothly vary from season to season or year to year, similar to the near-real-time GVF derived from weekly observed NDVI that NCEP plans to use. In that case, it will be necessary to explore how the

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Siegfried D. Schubert, Ronald E. Stewart, Hailan Wang, Mathew Barlow, Ernesto H. Berbery, Wenju Cai, Martin P. Hoerling, Krishna K. Kanikicharla, Randal D. Koster, Bradfield Lyon, Annarita Mariotti, Carlos R. Mechoso, Omar V. Müller, Belen Rodriguez-Fonseca, Richard Seager, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Lixia Zhang, and Tianjun Zhou

found online ( http://drought.unl.edu/Planning/Impacts.aspx ). 3 We note that values of the ratio greater than 0.06 are statistically significant at the 1% level based on an F test following Zwiers et al. (2000) . 4 We emphasize that these are meant to be summary results. As we shall see in section 3 , there are in some cases considerable variations in SST connections within a box and between seasons. For example, the western portions of East Africa tend to have a June–September (JJAS

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Mathew Barlow, Benjamin Zaitchik, Shlomit Paz, Emily Black, Jason Evans, and Andrew Hoell

. , O. L. Sen , and S. Hagemann , 2015 : Projected river discharge in the Euphrates–Tigris basin from a hydrological discharge model forced with RCM and GCM outputs . Climate Res. , 62 , 131 – 147 , doi: 10.3354/cr01268 . Bruins , H. J. , 1999 : Drought management and water supply systems in Israel . Drought Management Planning in Water Supply Systems , E. Cabrera and J. García-Serra, Eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 299–321 . Cannon , F. , L. M. Carvalho , C. Jones , and J

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