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Paul A. Dirmeyer

Mission (TRMM) satellite measurements ( Jackson and Hsu 2001 ; Bindlish et al. 2003 ) have also been used to estimate soil wetness. A dedicated soil wetness satellite mission has recently been launched (SMOS; Kerr et al. 2001 ; Drinkwater et al. 2009 ) and another is in the planning stages [Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); Entekhabi et al. 2010 ]. All microwave-based remote sensing technologies for soil wetness suffer from the shortcoming that only a very thin surface layer can be measured

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S. Nandargi and O. N. Dhar

Narayan 1965 , 1966 ; Dhar et al. 1966 ; Dhar and Bhattacharya 1975 ; Dhar et al. 1975 ; Dhar and Rakhecha 1976 ; Dhar et al. 1984 , 1986 , 1987 ; Dhar and Nandargi 1991 ) have shown that such studies are very important for planning, design, and operation of water resources and hydroelectric power projects in the region. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the severe rainstorms that occurred over the northwest Himalayan region during the past 135 years from 1875 to 2010. 2

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Pablo Imbach, Luis Molina, Bruno Locatelli, Olivier Roupsard, Gil Mahé, Ronald Neilson, Lenin Corrales, Marko Scholze, and Philippe Ciais

2011 ; Greenheck 2002 ). It is a repository of the evolutionary history of biodiversity ( Sechrest et al. 2002 ) and a bridge between North and South America for mammals ( MacFadden 2006 ), birds ( Weir et al. 2009 ), and plants ( Gentry 1982 ). Countries in the region have developed national and regional policies for integrating biodiversity conservation and development [e.g., the Central American System of Protected Areas ( http://www.sica.int/ ) and the Puebla–Panama plan ( http

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Qing Liu, Rolf H. Reichle, Rajat Bindlish, Michael H. Cosh, Wade T. Crow, Richard de Jeu, Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy, George J. Huffman, and Thomas J. Jackson

through the assimilation of soil moisture observations or related variables (such as microwave brightness temperature; Crow et al. 2006 ; Parajka et al. 2006 ; de Wit and van Diepen 2007 ; Reichle et al. 2007 ; Scipal et al. 2008 ; Drusch et al. 2009 ; Li et al. 2010 ; to name a few). The recently launched Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission ( Kerr et al. 2010 ) and the planned Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission ( Entekhabi et al. 2010a ) are designed to provide soil

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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

factors include air temperature and CO 2 concentration that influence the carbon cycles of ecosystems ( Suzuki et al. 2010a ). In counterpoint to these benefits, the controlled environment does not represent a natural environment, which introduces its own disadvantages. Using the CGEF, we made plans to investigate carbon dynamics of P. australis –dominated wetlands and to examine the responses of the wetlands to artificial environmental changes through the facility’s capability for controlling

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