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Tommy G. Jensen

, 337 – 339 . CLIVAR Scientific Steering Group , 1995 : CLIVAR—A study of climate variability and predictability: Science plan. WRCP 89, WMO/TD 690, World Climate Research Programme, Geneva, Switzerland, 170 pp . Saji , N. H. , B. N. Goswami , P. N. Vinayachandran , and T. Yamagata , 1999 : A dipole in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature , 401 , 360 – 363 . Webster , P. J. , A. M. Moore , J. P. Loschnigg , and R. R. Leben , 1999 : Coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in the

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Peter R. Oke and Andreas Schiller

.g., Kuo et al. 1998 ; Bishop et al. 2001 ). The increasing importance of OSSEs in meteorology has recently been highlighted by a new major international atmospheric research program under auspices of the World Meteorological Organization [e.g., The Observing-System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Implementation Plan; International Core Steering Committee for THORPEX 2005]. Few applications of OSSEs exist in physical oceanography. McIntosh (1987) worked on the optimal design of tide

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Joaquim Ballabrera-Poy, Eric Hackert, Raghu Murtugudde, and Antonio J. Busalacchi

variability in the tropical IO (information online at http://www.clivar.org ). Such an array is expected to complement remote sensing observations that, even though providing global, high-resolution coverage of the World Ocean, only supply information about the near-surface oceans ( Busalacchi 1997 ). While the IO array is still in its design phase, the present planned version spans the region from 55° to 95°E and varies in latitude between 16°S and 8°N. Its distribution has been chosen subjectively

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H. Annamalai, H. Okajima, and M. Watanabe

to make better seasonal predictions during El Niño years not only of the regional atmospheric response, but also the midlatitude response. In a future study, we plan to use more ensemble members and to include SST anomalies in the tropical Atlantic in order to determine the predictability of the Northern Hemisphere extratropical circulation during El Niño years. In particular, we intend to assess the contribution of the internal dynamics, as in the studies of Straus and Shukla (2002) and Peng

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Gabriel A. Vecchi and Matthew J. Harrison

. Lett. , 32 . L01604, doi:10.1029/2004GL021791 . CLIVAR–GOOS Indian Ocean Panel , 2006 : Understanding the role of the Indian Ocean in the climate system—Implementation plan for sustained observations. WCRP Informal Rep. 5/2006, ICPO Publications Series 100, GOOS Rep. 152, 78 pp . Duvel , J. P. , R. Roca , and J. Vialard , 2004 : Ocean mixed layer temperature variations induced by intraseasonal convective perturbations over the Indian Ocean. J. Atmos. Sci. , 61 , 1004 – 1023 . ECMWF

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Qian Song, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Anthony J. Rosati

north Indian Ocean. J. Climate , 13 , 3487 – 3499 . Bjerknes , J. , 1969 : Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 97 , 163 – 172 . CLIVAR–GOOS Indian Ocean Panel and Coauthors , 2006 : Understanding the role of the Indian Ocean in the climate system—Implementation plan for sustained observations. WCRP Informal Rep. 5/2006, ICOP Publication Series 100, GOOS Rep. 152, 76 pp. [Available online at http

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Lisan Yu, Xiangze Jin, and Robert A. Weller

community for planning and deploying in situ flux instruments in regions where the flux products differ considerably. In particular, the information will directly help our ongoing OAFlux project, which has the objective of developing an enhanced global analysis of air–sea latent, sensible, and net shortwave and net longwave radiation fluxes for the past 50 yr (from the mid-1950s onward) through optimally synthesizing satellite observations, NWP model outputs, and in situ measurements ( Yu and Weller

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Debasis Sengupta, Retish Senan, B. N. Goswami, and Jérôme Vialard

measurements of Indian Ocean equatorial currents near Addu Atoll. Deep-Sea Res. , 23 , 211 – 221 . Kuroda , Y. , 2002 : TRITON: Present status and future plan. JAMSTEC Tech. Rep. TOCS 5, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Yokosuka, Japan, 77 pp . Le Blanc , J-L. , and J-P. Boulanger , 2001 : Propagation and reflection of long equatorial waves in the Indian Ocean from TOPEX/POSEIDON data during the 1993–1998 period. Climate Dyn. , 17 , 547 – 557 . Levitus , S. , 1982

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