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Madhavi Jain, A. P. Dimri, and D. Niyogi

structure and extreme densification still persists in these centers. On the other hand, the British constructed the Lutyen zone in the New Delhi District in a planned manner, and the current government policies have been effective in containing any major sprawl in that area. The rest of the urban pockets developed with time (some planned while some unplanned), catering to the demands of infrastructure development as well as population pressures. The present study aims to see if the effects of different

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

investigate the effects of different options in city planning (e.g., concrete vs green infrastructure). 5.2. Implications for past climate change Even though the exact timing of the start of anthropogenic deforestation in Europe is debated (see, e.g., Gaillard et al. 2010 ), it is clear that the vegetation has gone from natural (potential) to the present highly anthropogenic conditions, with a forest fraction less than 30% in most parts of continental Europe during the last 1000–3000 years (e.g., Kaplan

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

description of version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-503+STR, 422 pp ., doi: 10.5065/D6RR1W7M . Omernik , J. M. , 1995 : Ecoregions: A framework for environmental management. Biological Assessment and Criteria: Tools for Water Resource Planning and Decision Making , W. S. Davis and T. P. Simon, Eds., CRC Press, 49–62 . Pechony , O. , D. T. Shindell , and G. Faluvegi , 2013 : Direct top-down estimates of biomass burning CO emissions using TES and MOPITT versus

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

limitations to our study that must be accounted for in any analysis involving urban planning. In particular, we did not consider the impacts of aerosol, even though the role of aerosols in urban environments will likely be an important factor. Other limitations include the lack of consideration of irrigation effects in the land surface representation, which can be expected to have a significant impact on the water and energy budget over the region. Irrigation over urban areas can actually increase the

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Edward Armstrong, Paul Valdes, Jo House, and Joy Singarayer

(RCPs) used in the IPCC report, with different LUC projections. This would not only account for the inconsistencies in models, but also with the uncertainty associated with LUC projections such as the total area and spatial pattern of change. Future projects that may help to address such issues include the Land-Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP), part of the sixth phase of the Coupled Climate Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) with results planned for 2018 to 2019 (see https

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