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Mozhgan Amiramjadi, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Mohammad Mirzaei, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

, TR, and SH domains. Generally, the regression by combined function rectifies the mean of distribution but still needs improvement in terms of representing the full range of variability in the diagnosed energies. Further work is planned for future to increase the range of variability by adding stochastic noise to the otherwise deterministic procedure for energy parameterization in the manner that has become standard practice for the physics parameterization in weather and climate models ( Berner

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

shown in Fig. 1 (bottom). Figure 2 shows the extent of all DEEPWAVE measurements in altitude and latitude. F ig . 2. North–south cross section showing the types of airborne and ground-based instruments contributing to DEEPWAVE measurements and their coverage in latitude and altitude. DEEPWAVE began with a test flight-planning exercise from 1 to 10 August 2013 to gain experience with forecasting and flight planning and to assess the reliability of such forecasts in preparation for the real field

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Martina Bramberger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Henrike Wilms, Steffen Gemsa, Kevin Raynor, and Robert Sharman

one described in this study might occur. So far, turbulence is considered to be among the major hazards for commercial air traffic flying between 8- and 14-km altitudes (e.g., Lane et al. 2009 ; Sharman et al. 2012b ; Williams 2017 ). Therefore, it is only natural to draw the attention to breaking mountain waves and their induced turbulence. Thus, for example, in a former field campaign the flight planning for the ER-2 aircraft focused on the forecast of mountain wave turbulence, which means

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Mahnoosh Haghighatnasab, Mohammad Mirzaei, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

equivalent adiabatic forcing arising from imbalances due to jets and fronts. To explore this possibility and the extension to spherical geometry warrant further studies, which we plan to do in future research. Acknowledgments We thank the University of Tehran and IAP for providing support during this research. The studies of CZ were partly funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through Grant ZU 120/2-2 for the Research Unit FOR 1898 (Multiscale dynamics of gravity waves/spontaneous imbalance). We

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

.3%). Altogether, the trough group regimes were underrepresented compared to results from the 40-yr climatology of Kidson (2000) . Many DEEPWAVE aircraft mountain wave missions were conducted during the TNW regime. On 5 out of 7 days, when the TNW regime occurred in June and July 2014, aircraft missions were devoted to observe deep propagating orographic gravity waves and in the majority of cases significant and strong mountain wave activity was found ( Table 1 ). During the flight planning process, the weak

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