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David A. R. Kristovich, Richard D. Clark, Jeffrey Frame, Bart Geerts, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen A. Kosiba, Neil F. Laird, Nicholas D. Metz, Justin R. Minder, Todd D. Sikora, W. James Steenburgh, Scott M. Steiger, Joshua Wurman, and George S. Young

utilized by the more experienced NWS meteorologists. Several OWLeS scientists later commented that detailed information provided in these forecasts of the likely timing and location of lake-effect precipitation was useful in the planning and prepositioning of critical equipment and field personnel for each IOP. Student field experiences. Besides being a key part of the OWLeS forecasting activities, students were also heavily involved with operating and maintaining various instruments during the field

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Jake P. Mulholland, Jeffrey Frame, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Scott M. Steiger, Karen A. Kosiba, and Joshua Wurman

; Kristovich et al. (2017) ; data available online at ], occurred during the winter of 2013/14. Stemming from the successes of the exploratory LLAP project, the OWLeS project sought to examine 1) the kinematics and dynamics of LLAP bands, 2) upwind and downwind lake influences (i.e., heat and moisture fluxes and advection) on lake-effect convection, and 3) orographic influences on lake-effect convection. The original OWLeS proposal planned for eight

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Daniel T. Eipper, Steven J. Greybush, George S. Young, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

designate the major lake axis. Fig . 1. (a)–(d) Images of NEXRAD equivalent radar reflectivity factor (reflectivity; dB Z ); images are 4000-ft constant-altitude plan position indicator (CAPPI) displays (see section 2 ). Each panel features a dominant band extending inland from Lake Ontario. Note that (a) presents an LLAP band (and hence a shoreline LWK band), but (b), (c), and (d) exhibit departures from the classic LLAP-band morphology (e.g., bends in the band and segments of the band oriented at an

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Scott M. Steiger, Tyler Kranz, and Theodore W. Letcher

negative charge to ground [very different than the preference for positive flashes observed in Moore and Orville (1990 )]. All of the lightning was observed over land, mostly over 30 km away from the shoreline. b. IOP5 (18 December 2013) 1) Mesoscale overview IOP5 was the first OWLeS lake-effect storm with multiple flashes of lightning. The evolution of the storm structure during IOP5 is summarized by plan position indicators of base reflectivity measured by the Montague, New York, WSR-88D (KTYX

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Daniel T. Eipper, George S. Young, Steven J. Greybush, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

environmental conditions supporting InPen of Lake Ontario LLAP bands observed during OWLeS. Finally, we develop and test InPen models and discuss the implications of this research. 2. Data and processing To perform statistical analysis on InPen, InPen needed first to be quantified. This process began with the identification of Lake Ontario LLAP bands. For LLAP-band identification, we employed 4000-ft NEXRAD constant-altitude plan position indicator (CAPPI) images of equivalent radar reflectivity factor

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Leah S. Campbell and W. James Steenburgh

maxima are clearly stronger in Control (cf. Figs. 13a,b ). Plan-view difference plots at 1000 m MSL show that the larger depositional growth in Control occurs near and downstream of the boomerang-shaped region of ascent over the convex windward slopes of Tug Hill (cf. Figs. 12 and 14a ), which contributes to a strengthening and broadening of the precipitation maximum over Tug Hill. In contrast, differences in accretion, which makes up a smaller proportion of the total mass growth tendency, are

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Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

watershed management plan. New York State Department of State, 295 pp. [Available online at .] Niziol , T. A. , W. R. Snyder , and J. S. Waldstreicher , 1995 : Winter weather forecasting throughout the eastern United States. Part IV: Lake effect snow . Wea. Forecasting , 10 , 61 – 77 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(1995)010<0061:WWFTTE>2.0.CO;2 . Palm , S. P. , Y. Yang , J. D. Spinhirne , and A. Marshak , 2011

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Peter G. Veals, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

there is variability by period, these median differences are all statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Fig . 2. (a),(c),(e) Mean radar-derived LPE rate from KTYX in the plan view for all periods occurring along the transect during 2008–17, with the dashed line indicating the transect. (b),(d),(f) Frequency of occurrence of echoes >10 dB Z in the X – Z plane along the transect, with the graph indicating mean KTYX LPE rate along the transect. The panels are for (a),(b) low; (c

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Justin R. Minder, Theodore W. Letcher, Leah S. Campbell, Peter G. Veals, and W. James Steenburgh

hypothesis testing will require a more detailed accounting of cloud dynamics and microphysical processes utilizing other datasets collected during OWLeS and numerical modeling experiments. Acknowledgments This material is based upon work supported by National Science Foundation Grant 1262090 to the University of Utah and the University at Albany Faculty Research Award Program. We acknowledge the other PIs and participants that contributed to the planning and execution of the OWLeS field campaign. NCAR

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Leah S. Campbell, W. James Steenburgh, Peter G. Veals, Theodore W. Letcher, and Justin R. Minder

frequencies stretched eastward from Lake Ontario and broadened over Tug Hill ( Fig. 12a ). A cross section through the axis of highest echo frequency (identified with white dashed line in plan view plots) shows a steady decrease in the height of the ≥10-dB Z frequency gradient between the shoreline and the lee of Tug Hill during these banded periods ( Fig. 12b ). This is consistent with a decrease in the depth of precipitation features, in contrast to the deepening one might expect if there was a lifting

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