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Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, James N. Marquis, Matthew R. Kumjian, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Maxwell A. Grover, Paul Robinson, and Deanna A. Hence

resultant MCSs often leads to riverine and flash flooding (e.g., Rasmussen et al. 2014 ). On 10 November 2018, an upper-level trough approached the SDC domain and contributed to the environmental vertical wind shear and convective instability (e.g., Chisholm and Renick 1972 ; Weisman and Klemp 1982 ) necessary for the development of an intense convective storm with supercellular characteristics. In section 2 of this article, we will describe the planning and execution of the observing strategy used

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, and John M. Peters

direction (504 km). Seven different terrain height peaks of 500, 1500, 2000, 2500 [Control (CTRL)], 3000, 3500, and 4500 m were implemented. An example plan view of the 2500 m CTRL terrain configuration and west-to-east oriented vertical cross sections through all terrain peaks for these variable settings is depicted in Fig. 1 . Fig . 1. (a) Plan view of terrain height (m) from a 1 km WRF simulation (adapted from Mulholland et al. 2019 ), (b) plan view of terrain height (m) from the 2500 m CTRL CM1

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Timothy J. Lang, Eldo E. Ávila, Richard J. Blakeslee, Jeff Burchfield, Matthew Wingo, Phillip M. Bitzer, Lawrence D. Carey, Wiebke Deierling, Steven J. Goodman, Bruno Lisboa Medina, Gregory Melo, and Rodolfo G. Pereyra

was below GLM FED (i.e., ratio < 1; Figs. 10c,f ). Fig . 9. “XLMA”-style plot for LMA source density for 0330–0340 UTC 14 Dec 2018: (a) Time–height. (b) Longitude–height. (c) Normalized vertical distribution of sources, with total number of sources observed. (d) Plan view. Also shown are LMA station locations (open diamonds) and the 100-km range ring. (e) Latitude–height. In all subplots except (c), the density color scale is relative and unique to that particular subplot—blue is the lowest

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Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola V. Salio, Eldo Ávila, Phillip Bitzer, Lawrence Carey, V. Chandrasekar, Wiebke Deierling, Francina Dominguez, Maria Eugenia Dillon, C. Marcelo Garcia, David Gochis, Steven Goodman, Deanna A. Hence, Karen A. Kosiba, Matthew R. Kumjian, Timothy Lang, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Robert Marshall, Lynn A. McMurdie, Ernani Lima Nascimento, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Rita Roberts, Angela K. Rowe, Juan José Ruiz, Eliah F.M.T. São Sabbas, A. Celeste Saulo, Russ S. Schumacher, Yanina Garcia Skabar, Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado, Robert J. Trapp, Adam Varble, James Wilson, Joshua Wurman, Edward J. Zipser, Ivan Arias, Hernán Bechis, and Maxwell A. Grover

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the experimental design, execution, education and public outreach, data collection, and initial scientific results from the Remote sensing of Electrification, Lightning, And Mesoscale/microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaign. RELAMPAGO was a major field campaign conducted in Córdoba and Mendoza provinces in Argentina, and western Rio Grande do Sul State in Brazil in 2018-2019 that involved more than 200 scientists and students from the US, Argentina, and Brazil. This campaign was motivated by the physical processes and societal impacts of deep convection that frequently initiates in this region, often along the complex terrain of the Sierras de Córdoba and Andes, and often grows rapidly upscale into dangerous storms that impact society. Observed storms during the experiment produced copious hail, intense flash flooding, extreme lightning flash rates and other unusual lightning phenomena, but few tornadoes. The 5 distinct scientific foci of RELAMPAGO: convection initiation, severe weather, upscale growth, hydrometeorology, and lightning and electrification are described, as are the deployment strategies to observe physical processes relevant to these foci. The campaign’s international cooperation, forecasting efforts, and mission planning strategies enabled a successful data collection effort. In addition, the legacy of RELAMPAGO in South America, including extensive multi-national education, public outreach, and social media data-gathering associated with the campaign, is summarized.

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Matthew R. Kumjian, Rachel Gutierrez, Joshua S. Soderholm, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paula Maldonado, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Kevin A. Bowley, Milagros Alvarez Imaz, and Paola Salio

from 11° elevation angle, taken at 1926:58 UTC, around the time the storm was producing gargantuan hail. Panels shown are (left) Z H , (center) Z DR , and (right) ρ hv . The annotated arrow indicates the polarimetric three-body scattering signature. The black dot is Villa Carlos Paz. F ig . 7. Plan views of WRF simulated minimum UH (m 2 s ‒1 ). Green and blue contours show the terrain at 1,000 and 2,000 m, respectively, and the white star shows the location of Villa Carlos Paz. Hail reports

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Robert J. Trapp

-modified simulations were consistent with the CTRL-0 simulation (see Table 1 ). Fig . 2. 1 km WRF terrain height experiments: (top) plan views of terrain height (shaded; m), 1000 m terrain height contour (gray lines), city of Córdoba (lime dot), and the location of the west–east-oriented vertical cross sections (red lines) shown in the bottom row. (bottom) Vertical cross sections of vertical velocity (shaded; m s −1 ) and potential temperature (black contours every 1 K) valid at 1500 UTC 29 Nov 2017. (a),(f) LOW

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