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This appendix is the executive summary of the 1990 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan (DOE/ER-0442; available online at https://www.arm.gov/publications/programdocs/doe-er-0442.pdf ) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research. The text has been edited to conform to the style of the American Meteorological Society, but the content is otherwise unchanged from the original document. Foreword In 1978 the Department of Energy initiated the Carbon Dioxide

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This appendix is the executive summary of the 1996 Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) (DOE/ER-0670T, UC-402; available online at https://www.arm.gov/publications/programdocs/doe-er-0670t.pdf ) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Environmental Sciences Division. The text has been edited to conform to the style of the American Meteorological Society, but the content is otherwise

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This appendix is the executive summary of the 2004 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan: Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program (DOE/ER-ARM-0402; available online at https://www.arm.gov/publications/programdocs/doe-er-arm-0402.pdf ) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. The text has been edited to conform to the style of the American Meteorological Society, but the content is

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Maria Carmen Lemos, Hallie Eakin, Lisa Dilling, and Jessica Worl

the social sciences? Any hope we have to address the impacts of climatic change better is predicated on our ability to understand the problem and come up with viable solutions. From an impact perspective, individuals, communities, institutions (rules, norms, and practices), and organizations at every scale are an integral part of the climatic change problem either by being vulnerable to its impacts or by being able to avoid (plan and prepare) and respond to them (adapt). Early on, pioneers in the

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Gerald R. North

Abstract

It is natural that a book chapter honoring Joanne Simpson draw the connection between the two most important tropical meteorological observing programs in the history of meteorology: the Global Atmospheric Research Program Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) and the Tropical Rainfal Measuring Mission (TRMM). Both programs were dominated by the influences of Joanne Simpson. When TRMM data are all in, these two grand experiments will have given us more information about the behavior of tropical convection and precipitation over the tropical oceans than all other tropical field campaigns combined. But some may not know how GATE data played a key role in demonstrating the feasibility of a mission like TRMM. This chapter will present a review of a number of studies that connect GATE precipitation data with TRMM, especially in the early planning stages.

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Ted S. Cress and Douglas L. Sisterson

submitted to the CES and its rejection; it was considered too big and too costly—nearly equaling the then total investment in atmospheric basic research by all departments of the Federal government. 1 The CES requested a revised, less expensive proposal ( Stokes 2016 , chapter 2) that was accepted, which became the ARM Program Plan ( DOE 1990 ; ARM 2016a , appendix A) and the primary guidance for the implementation of the ARM Program. For a field program, that approval was not without its doubters

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Gerald M. Stokes

the ARM Program were not agreed to by the governing body of the USGCRP—the Committee on Earth Sciences (CES). The disagreements among the CES principals revolved largely around the size of the program. The program was perceived as too large at $200 million per year, and the view was that the atmospheric science community was not large enough to take on the work even if funded at that level. After some intensive negotiation, the DOE agreed in mid-August of 1989 to produce a revised Program Plan by

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D. L. Sisterson, R. A. Peppler, T. S. Cress, P. J. Lamb, and D. D. Turner

1. Introduction At its very core, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s objective was to make a wide range of atmospheric measurements that would support the science needed to improve the treatment of clouds and atmospheric radiation in global climate models (e.g., Stokes and Schwartz 1994 ; Ackerman and Stokes 2003 ; Ellingson et al. 2016 , chapter 1; Stokes 2016 , chapter 2). Early ARM planning indicated that this ambitious objective would require the establishment of

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Thomas P. Ackerman, Ted S. Cress, Wanda R. Ferrell, James H. Mather, and David D. Turner

Program and science during this early period. Electronic data transmission was in its infancy with low transmission rates and high costs, especially for large data files from relatively remote sites. Thus, data were transported on physical media, often with relatively long delay times. Computers and storage media were expensive and limited by today’s standards. During the 1990s, computers and the Internet were in a rapid expansion mode, which required plans to be continually revised and updated by

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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

. Revisiting the concept of a movable facility By 2000, roughly a decade after the ARM Program began, the three permanent sites functioned well and were regularly delivering data ( Ackerman et al. 2016 , chapter 3). However, two issues with the ARM plan had surfaced. The first followed from the earlier discussions on supplementary locales, which had become even more important with the loss of two of the proposed primary sites. The three permanent sites infrequently (or never) sampled tropical continental

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