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Shahzada Adnan, Kalim Ullah, and Gao Shouting

, respectively, at the α = 0.05 significance level); 3) to delineate the correlation among different precipitation and drought indices; and finally 4) to investigate the drought climatologies and vulnerable areas in the SCA region with special focus on Pakistan for the period of 1951–2010, which may be helpful for water management and agricultural planning for sustainable development. 2. Data and methodology The study area lies in the domain of 20.25°–45.75°N, 59.25°–80.75°E and comprises Afghanistan, China

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Michael Steele, Rebecca Morley, and Wendy Ermold

° latitude–longitude fields on 33 depth levels in ASCII format. Also provided is a FORTRAN program that fills the default land mask with interpolated values for use with models having higher spatial resolution than the WOA grid. These datasets should prove useful for climatological analyses as well as for numerical model initialization, climate restoring, and validation. Near-term plans for updating the PHC include the analysis of error variance across both WOA and AOA datasets. Some data merging

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Guang-Shan Chen, Michael Notaro, Zhengyu Liu, and Yongqiang Liu

), although it is hard to determine how much of the forestry can mitigate atmospheric CO 2 warming ( Canadell and Raupach 2008 ; Pacala and Socolow 2004 ). A Congressional project has been planned to afforest about 18 million acres by 2020 in the Southeast United States (SEUS), the Great Lake states, and the Corn Belt states ( Watson 2009 ). The SEUS consists of 13 states from Texas to the Atlantic coast and from Florida to Virginia, with 40% of the nation’s forests within just 24% of the United States

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A. Amengual, V. Homar, R. Romero, S. Alonso, and C. Ramis

in the frequency of the extreme events. Therefore, the impacts of climate change can be assessed to guide the planning and exploitation of the urban, environmental, and tourist activities in the area. The projections have revealed important changes in the temperature regimes that should help local authorities to activate contingency plans. It would be highly recommended to take precautionary measures before the projected increase in the frequency of extreme hot days affect the SPdP in summertime

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Judith A. Curry, Julie L. Schramm, William B. Rossow, and David Randall

satellite remote sensing of cloud and radiative characteristics. An assessment is given of the current performance of satellite remote sensing and climate modeling in the Arctic as related to cloud and radiation issues.Radiation-climate feedback processes are discussed, and estimates are made of the sign and magnitude of theindividual feedback components. Future plans to address these issues are described.1. Introduction The importance of cloud-radiative interactions toglobal climate has been

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Steven T. Sonka, Stanley A. Changnon, and Steven Hofing

effectiveness of climate information is a significant impediment toexpanding the use of that information. An innovative approach, combining a decision experiment and anempirical economic analysis, was implemented in this paper as a means to conduct such an economic evaluation.The decision setting was that of planning the distribution of varieties and amounts of seed corn for a majorseed corn producing firm in the midwestern United States. Actual managers, accustomed to making this decision,were provided

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Brent Boehlert, Susan Solomon, and Kenneth M. Strzepek

1. Introduction As a result of rising temperatures and changing and more variable precipitation patterns, climate change will significantly affect the patterns of regional and global water availability and demand. Combined with rapidly rising water demand associated with global economic development, these changes will place unprecedented pressures on some already strained water resource systems. 1 Successfully planning for future changes that could exceed past variability and hence impact

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Stanley A. Changnon and Joyce M. Changnon

period did not represent the longer-term likelihood of areally extensive dry summers. Uses of climatic databy the insurance industry include planning for the occurrence of such extreme event considerations, plus pointvs area probabilities of these anomalous events; choosing the periods to select for routinely establishing newrates (rerating is typically done on 2- to 10-year cycles); and for determining the averages most appropriate touse for rate levels and sales considerations.1. Introduction

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Lakshmi Krishnamurthy, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Xiaosong Yang, Karin van der Wiel, V. Balaji, Sarah B. Kapnick, Liwei Jia, Fanrong Zeng, Karen Paffendorf, and Seth Underwood

loss of 3 billion U.S. dollars ( Narasimhan et al. 2016 ; Mishra 2016 ; Ray et al. 2016 ). It was estimated to be the eighth most expensive natural disaster in the world during 2015 ( DNA 2015 ). Therefore, it is important to understand the probability of occurrence of such an event in the future and its causes, for planning and mitigation purposes. Unlike most of India, Chennai receives rainfall as part of the northeast monsoon during the October–December months. The northeast monsoon rainfall

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Michael R. Grose, Jonas Bhend, Sugata Narsey, Alex Sen Gupta, and Josephine R. Brown

1. Introduction Changes to rainfall patterns in a warming climate have major impacts on water security for many Pacific island nations, with implications for many sectors including agriculture, infrastructure, and human health. Reliable and island-specific rainfall projections would be very useful for regional adaptation planning. Global climate models (GCMs) are our primary tool for making climate projections, with phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) constituting the

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