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Tim Bardsley, Andrew Wood, Mike Hobbins, Tracie Kirkham, Laura Briefer, Jeff Niermeyer, and Steven Burian

water management has long relied on an assumption of stationarity, future climate change may result in hydrologic regimes not well represented by historically observed records ( Milly et al. 2008 ; Woodhouse et al. 2010 ), rendering this assumption no longer defensible for engineering, planning and management applications ( Craig 2010 ). Improved awareness of decadal or longer-term variations or trends in observed and projected climate changes has thus led water managers to evaluate numerous

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Martin-Pierre Lavigne, Alain N. Rousseau, Richard Turcotte, Anne-Marie Laroche, Jean-Pierre Fortin, and Jean-Pierre Villeneuve

showed that this tool can be used on large-scale watersheds for land management planning with respect to water resources. Annual, spring, and summer runoff simulation results were consistent with observations from experimental paired watersheds. More simulation studies could be made to validate the predictive power of GIBSI for smaller deforested area, as well as for the long-term effects of vegetation growth. This could be coupled with an application on paired watersheds. Finally, the integration of

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Saumya Sarkar, Jonathan B. Butcher, Thomas E. Johnson, and Christopher M. Clark

dedicated bioretention areas. Bioretention includes an underdrain for native soils with low infiltration capacity. Green roofs: Green roof designs have distinct characteristics and are not directly connected to native soils. They are most often used in denser plans with flat rooftops, but are also now designed for pitched roofs (up to about 35°). While green roofs are typically connected to other GI elements in a complete design, they are examined in isolation in this experiment to evaluate the

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Shuguang Liu, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Lena R. Boysen, James D. Ford, Andrew Fox, Kevin Gallo, Jerry Hatfield, Geoffrey M. Henebry, Thomas G. Huntington, Zhihua Liu, Thomas R. Loveland, Richard J. Norby, Terry Sohl, Allison L. Steiner, Wenping Yuan, Zhao Zhang, and Shuqing Zhao

, precipitation, and increasing atmospheric water vapor content ( Collins et al. 2013 ). Climate change–induced alteration of the water cycle will likely have profound effects on land cover and land use ( Hewitson et al. 2014 ; Settele et al. 2015 ), such as agricultural practices and planning and plant species redistribution, and vice versa. The interactions among climate, the water cycle, ecosystems, and LCLUC are complex, and understanding them is a grand challenge. Specifically, we need to understand how

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Paolina Bongioannini Cerlini, Lorenzo Silvestri, Silvia Meniconi, and Bruno Brunone

: Planning for an uncertain future: Climate change sensitivity assessment toward adaptation planning for public water supply . Earth Interact. , 17 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2012EI000501.1 . 10.1175/2012EI000501.1 Bjerklie , D. M. , T. J. Trombley , and R. J. Viger , 2011 : Simulations of historical and future trends in snowfall and groundwater recharge for basins draining to Long Island Sound . Earth Interact. , 15 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2011EI374.1 . 10.1175/2011EI374.1 Bonta , J. V

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Umarporn Charusombat and Dev Niyogi

and consistency of different drought indices to characterize droughts. Indiana developed a formal water shortage plan in 1994 and revised it in 2000 and more recently in 2009 ( DNR 2000 ; DNR 2009 ). The plan consists of four water shortage phases: (i) normal, (ii) water shortage watch, (iii) water shortage warning, and (iv) water shortage emergency. The plan identifies the minimum streamflow equivalent as 7Q10 (i.e., the lowest 7-day average flow having a 10-yr recurrence interval) as an

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Ashok K. Mishra and Vijay P. Singh

Survey (USGS Project ID 2009TX334G) through the project “Hydrological Drought Characterization for Texas under Climate Change, with Implications for Water Resources Planning and Management.” References Farge , M. , 1992 : Wavelet transforms and their applications to turbulence . Annu. Rev. Fluid Dyn. , 24 , 395 – 457 . Grinsted , A. , J. C. Moore , and S. Jevrejeva , 2004 : Application of the cross wavelet transform and wavelet coherence to geophysical time series . Nonlinear

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Richard R. Heim Jr. and Michael J. Brewer

regional drought prediction capabilities for variables and scales most relevant to user needs on subseasonal to centennial time scales. The action plan developed by the workshop had applications to a GDIS, with the key recommendations including the following: (i) develop a drought catalogue that summarizes our current understanding of the causes of drought worldwide, to include the important time scales (e.g., subseasonal, seasonal, decadal, centennial) and mechanisms [e.g., ENSO, Pacific decadal

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J. Marshall Shepherd

understanding of urbanization on the total Earth–climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth’s atmosphere–ocean–land–biosphere components interact as a coupled system and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical ( Figure 1 ). As an example of recent concerns about the role of urban environments on the Earth system, several issues or questions raised in the United States’ Climate Change Science Program plan ( Climate Change Science Program and

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Rosa Lasaponara, Antonio Lanorte, and Stefano Pignatti

spectral channels for the study area. The selected study area constitutes a complex morphological unit in which mountain landscapes are close to the Sinni River alluvial plan. It is characterized by complex topography with altitude varying from 400 to 1900 m above sea level (ASL) and mixed vegetation covers. Between 400 and 600 m, natural vegetation is constituted by the Mediterranean scrubs, xeric prairies, and Mediterranean shrubby formations. In the strip included between 600 and 1000–1200 m, the

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