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Ralph J. Donaldson Jr.

J~,NUARY1978 RALPH J. DONALDSON, JR. 39Observations of the Union City Tornadic Storm by Plan Shear Indicator RALPH J. DONALDSON, J~. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass. 01731(Manuscript received 14 December 1976, in final form 13 June 1977)ABSTRACT The storm which spawned the devastating Union City, Okla., tornado of 24 May 1973 was observed byDoppler Plan

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CLARENCE J. ROOT

-L ,be fruitful of valuable results.CITY PLANNING AND THE PREVAILING WINDS.C~LAREKCE J. ROOT, Meteorologist.[Weather Bureau Oflice, Fpringfield, Ill., July 17,1923.]Much interest has been manifested during recent years in the city planning and zoning movement. The plan- ning of cities is hardly a modern idea. As long ago as1789 Maj. Pierre Charles L'Enfant, an engineer officer who had served with our troops in the Revolution, was commissioned to lay out a capital city for the young Nation. Washi

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HURD C. WILLETT

MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEWEditor, ALFRED J. HENRYVOL. 6Q, No. 6W. B. No. 1050 JUNE, 1931 CLO0ED AUQU0T 3, 1931I0SUED SEPTEMBER 4,1931GROUND PLAN OF A DYNAMIC METEOROLOGYBy HURD C. WILLETT[Woods Hole 0cesno~r.iphic InsLtution. Wowls Hole. hiss., Jul? 10, 13311This is a summary of a discussion recently presented a t a meeting of the New England branch of the AmericanMeteorological Society held at the Massachusetts Insti- tute of Technology in Cambridge.The discussion was based on T. Bergerons recent

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_-____-___ ,020418 __.____.__,032670 __________ ,001814 __________.021589 .__.__.___.006352 ._________.047043 ._________.002iX ____._____PLAN FOR DIRECT CALL TO SHIPS BY RADIO FOR WEATHER REPORTS DURINGHURRICANE SEASON[Bulletin issued by the Forecnst Division. \Venther Roredu, Washington, June 1, 19331When a tropica,l disturbance is in progress in the southern portion of the North Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, or the Caribbean Sea, ship reports of weather conditions by radio are frequent,ly lacking from the

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Rory G. J. Fitzpatrick, Caroline L. Bain, Peter Knippertz, John H. Marsham, and Douglas J. Parker

Abstract

Accurate prediction of the commencement of local rainfall over West Africa can provide vital information for local stakeholders and regional planners. However, in comparison with analysis of the regional onset of the West African monsoon, the spatial variability of the local monsoon onset has not been extensively explored. One of the main reasons behind the lack of local onset forecast analysis is the spatial noisiness of local rainfall. A new method that evaluates the spatial scale at which local onsets are coherent across West Africa is presented. This new method can be thought of as analogous to a regional signal against local noise analysis of onset. This method highlights regions where local onsets exhibit a quantifiable degree of spatial consistency (denoted local onset regions or LORs). It is found that local onsets exhibit a useful amount of spatial agreement, with LORs apparent across the entire studied domain; this is in contrast to previously found results. Identifying local onset regions and understanding their variability can provide important insight into the spatial limit of monsoon predictability. While local onset regions can be found over West Africa, their size is much smaller than the scale found for seasonal rainfall homogeneity. A potential use of local onset regions is presented that shows the link between the annual intertropical front progression and local agronomic onset.

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M. L. Thompson and P. Guttorp

data have been modeled by a homogeneous Poisson process, in which case times betweenstorm occurrences are independent of one another, making prediction, and hence advance planning, impossible.We give some evidence against the adequacy of a Poisson process model and suggest a Poisson cluster modelthat appears to describe the data better. The features of this model are such as to enable some planning proceduresto be developed.1. Introduction Mooley (1981) studied the distribution of severe

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EMIL D. ATTANASI, S. R. JOHNSON, SHARON LeDUC, and JAMES D. McQUIGG

analysis.These estimates indicate a strong sensitivity of the lattercategory of work to precipitation conditions. Such modelsmay aid contract letting agencies in planning paymentschedules, penalty clauses, and completion dates for newroads; construction firms may find such models valuablein planning effective use of men and equipment. ''1. INTRODUCTIONThe road construction industry is highly sensitive toweather conditions. This sensitivity arises from the factthat certain types of weather conditions

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Bruce Ellingwood and Robert K. Redfield

planning and design purposes also are described.1. Introduction During the past several winters, numerous roofs inthe northern part of the United States have sufferedsevere damage or have collapsed due to heavy snows.In that part of the country, the snow load frequentlygoverns the structural design of roofs and may createspecial problems for long-span roof systems. Thesefailures have increased the interest and concern of architects, engineers and the public in the snow loadrequirements in codes and

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LCDR. WILLIAM E. HUBERT

model currently in use at JNWP. Two different sea-forecast models havebeen tested to date. The first utilized only the forecast winds at the end of the forecast period and therefore yieldedfully developed waves. A model incorporating duration in a crude manner is now in daily operation. Thispaper describes both methods, compares the numerical results with observed conditions, and outlines future plans.1. INTRODUCTIONIn describing and forecasting sea conditions, onegenerally deals with two more or

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Ian A. Renfrew and G. W. K. Moore

carried out hydrographic surveys, launched oceanographic instruments, and had a number of meteorological instruments on board. We also had at our disposal two C-130 aircraft of the U.S. Air Force Reserve 53d Squadron—the “Hurricane Hunters.” To aid the planning of intensive observing periods and ship operations a meteorological forecast model, the U.S. Navy’s Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS; see Hodur 1997 ), was run over a Labrador Sea domain especially for the project

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