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Wassila M. Thiaw and Vadlamani B. Kumar

decades, much attention has focused on advance risk planning in agriculture and water and, more recently, on health. These initiatives require updates of weather and climate outlooks. This paper describes the active role of NOAA’s African Desk in FEWS and in enhancing the capacity of African institutions to improve forecasts. The African Desk was established in 1994 to provide services to U.S. agencies and African institutions. Emphasis is on the operational products across all time scales from

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Rahul S. Todmal

, Messina (2013) has attempted to map the effects of 2003 drought conditions in the Krishna basin. It is reported that the drought and flood disasters in 2003 and 2005, respectively, have devoured more funds than the planned budget of the rural and agriculture sectors in Maharashtra State for 2002–07 ( World Bank 2008 ). The recent drought experienced in 2012 has adversely affected the agrarian economy of Maharashtra ( Udmale et al. 2014 ). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC 2013

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Robert A. Clark III, Zachary L. Flamig, Humberto Vergara, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Daniel J. Mandl, Stuart Frye, Matthew Handy, and Maria Patterson

nation’s population lives in the northeastern regions (Caprivi and Kavango), abutting Namibia’s borders with Angola and Zambia, and an additional 46% of the population—over 800,000 people—resides in north-central Namibia (Oshikoto, Ohangwena, Oshana, and Omusati; National Planning Commission 2012 ). This densely populated region represents less than 15% of the total land area ( Rukandema et al. 2009 ) and experiences variable, sometimes flooding, rain with an annual median value of 420–480 mm in the

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Rosalind Cornforth, Douglas J. Parker, Mariane Diop-Kane, Andreas H. Fink, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Arlene Laing, Ernest Afiesimama, Jim Caughey, Aida Diongue-Niang, Abdou Kassimou, Peter Lamb, Benjamin Lamptey, Zilore Mumba, Ifeanyi Nnodu, Jerome Omotosho, Steve Palmer, Patrick Parrish, Leon-Guy Razafindrakoto, Wassila Thiaw, Chris Thorncroft, and Adrian Tompkins

. Sustainability would be enhanced through linking these into capacity-building activities integrated into the implementation of the Global Framework for Climate Services for the Sahel through country-driven National Action Plans. By having a common reference, it is intended that good practice across the region can be shared, and that future improvements in practice are completed against a common understanding. Plans are already going ahead to use The Forecasters’ Handbook to support training activities in

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Peter J. Lamb, Diane H. Portis, and Abraham Zangvil

) the SGP-wide representativeness of the surface moisture and heat flux measurements made at 23 SGP point locations for 15+ years. The design of and planning for CLASIC anticipated that answering these questions would be facilitated by spatial and temporal precipitation and soil moisture variations that were expected to occur inevitably during the campaign. The present study provides essential background for the above core CLASIC science by investigating the large-scale atmospheric moisture budget

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Mimi Stith, Alessandra Giannini, John del Corral, Susana Adamo, and Alex de Sherbinin

be effective strategies in adaptation to climate change. In acknowledging variation in the spatial distribution of development interventions and their relation to environmental outcome, our analysis lends partial, quantitative support to interpretations of the regreening of the Sahel that emphasize human agency. Even at the coarse resolution of analysis implemented, which we plan to refine in subsequent research, we were able to objectively identify r égions , the first-level administrative

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Zewdu T. Segele, Michael B. Richman, Lance M. Leslie, and Peter J. Lamb

rainfall, its seasonal prediction is of great importance for agricultural planning and socioeconomic disaster mitigation. Several previous studies have examined aspects of the intraseasonal-to-interannual variability of Ethiopian rainfall. These studies have considered the following: Kiremt onset, cessation, and resulting growing season variability ( Segele and Lamb 2005 ); the abrupt latitudinal rainfall changes involved and their representation in climate model simulations ( Riddle and Cook 2008

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Lisa Hannak, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Anke Kniffka, and Gregor Pante

importantly precipitation over a large area. Monsoonal rainfall affects the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people through its impacts on agriculture, health, water resources, and power generation. The large interannual to decadal variations of the WAM can have catastrophic consequences for the local population ( Benson and Clay 1998 ; Nicholson 2001 ). Therefore, a reliable weather, seasonal, and decadal climate prediction is crucial for many planning activities across the region. Despite these

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Thomas Engel, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Gregor Pante, and Jan Bliefernicht

currents within a short time. In addition, insufficient urban planning urges poor people to settle in flood-prone areas of cities ( Hardoy et al. 2001 ; Nchito 2007 ; Douglas et al. 2008 ) with insufficient infrastructure, canalization, and waste removal. In addition, standing water favors outbreaks of waterborne diseases such as cholera ( IPCC 2007 ), and flood damages entail shortages in the food supply ( Hartill 2008 ). Both demographic and climatic factors could exacerbate this situation in the

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