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F. M. Ralph, T. Coleman, P. J. Neiman, R. J. Zamora, and M. D. Dettinger

-lead forecast strategies represent the large-scale atmospheric conditions used here more directly than the more surficial outcomes (precipitation and streamflow). Fig . 7. Schematic summary of atmospheric and hydrometeorological conditions associated with landfalling atmospheric rivers recorded by an ARO at Bodega Bay and additional observations from nearby. (left) Plan view (based on previous studies summarized in section 1 ) of an AR striking the coast ahead of a cold front (see Fig. 1a for an example

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H. Leijnse, R. Uijlenhoet, C. Z. van de Beek, A. Overeem, T. Otto, C. M. H. Unal, Y. Dufournet, H. W. J. Russchenberg, J. Figueras i Ventura, H. Klein Baltink, and I. Holleman

velocity measured by the 35-GHz cloud radar clearly show the presence of a melting layer at ∼1.5 km, which means that both the 0.4° elevation of the operational C-band radar and IDRA are measuring liquid precipitation. The plan position indicator (PPI) of reflectivities from IDRA (including a calibration correction based on comparison with 2DVD-derived reflectivities; this calibration offset has been confirmed by Otto and Russchenberg (2010) ) shows the very fine spatial structure that is present in

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R. Uijlenhoet, J.-M. Cohard, and M. Gosset

optical spectropluviometer located at a distance of about 7 km from the scintillometer path. A more detailed analysis of k – R relations on the basis of raindrop size distributions measured with this instrument, while beyond the scope of the current study, is a topic of planned investigations. b. Scintillometer-based rainfall estimates for selected events Figure 3 shows time series of the one-minute average received signal from the scintillometer and the inferred path-average rain rates and

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Jian Zhang and Youcun Qi

J. , 2005 : The national mosaic and multisensor QPE (NMQ) project-status and plans for a community testbed for high-resolution multisensor quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) over the United States. Preprints, 19th Conf. on Hydrology, San Diego, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P1.3 . Smyth, T. J. , and Illingworth A. J. , 1998 : Radar estimates of rainfall rates at the ground in bright band and non-bright band events. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 124 , 2417 – 2434 . 10.1002/qj

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

forecasts is echoed by the needs of many specific forecast user communities, such as transportation, water resources and flood control, emergency management, and many others. These needs were highlighted in the U.S. Weather Research Program (USWRP)-sponsored community planning report ( Ralph et al. 2005b ), in which experts in hydrology, transportation, and emergency management described the linkages of quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) to their specific community’s needs. The major

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Dusanka Zupanski, Sara Q. Zhang, Milija Zupanski, Arthur Y. Hou, and Samson H. Cheung

scheme is planned to focus on the CRM-predicted hydrometeor distributions and will use information from available observations to derive a parameterized bias correction algorithm, and the correction parameters will be estimated and updated along the assimilation cycling. c. The ensemble data assimilation algorithm The MLEF, with its iterative, nondifferentiable minimization ( Zupanski et al. 2008 ), is an important component of WRF-EDAS. It provides a means to assimilate precipitation sensitive

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Youcun Qi, Jian Zhang, Brian Kaney, Carrie Langston, and Kenneth Howard

orographic rainfall processes observed by radar during the California land-falling jets experiment . J. Hydrometeor. , 4 , 264 – 282 , doi:10.1175/1525-7541(2003)4<264:CORPOB>2.0.CO;2 . Zhang, J. , and Qi Y. , 2010 : A real-time algorithm for the correction of brightband effects in radar-derived QPE . J. Hydrometeor. , 11 , 1157 – 1171 , doi:10.1175/2010JHM1201.1 . Zhang, J. , and Coauthors , 2011 : National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor QPE (NMQ) system: Description, results, and future plans

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

networks in the United States and Europe install planned upgrades to include dual-polarization variables. 9. Conclusions Radial velocity and radar reflectivity data from the Portland, Oregon, NWS WSR-88D radar are analyzed for 117 winter-season storms (1 November–31 March) from 2003–06 to determine the typical spatial patterns of precipitation and winds for this region and their relation to thermodynamic characteristics from the nearby NWS upper-air sounding at Salem, Oregon. The upper-air soundings

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