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Jason C. Senkbeil, Meganne S. Rockman, and John B. Mason

an actual tornado event. Respondents were presented with a tornado-at-home scenario and a tornado-while-driving scenario. For the at-home scenario, most respondents (82%) preferred to stay in the home, and for the driving scenario most respondents (72%) indicated that they would leave their vehicles to seek shelter. No previous research has been directly devoted to changes in individual shelter-seeking plans of residents after a significant tornado event. Using Tuscaloosa, Alabama, as a case

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Philip L. Chaney and Greg S. Weaver

al. (2009) found that 21% of mobile home residents at study sites in Georgia, Mississippi, Illinois, and Oklahoma had access to a basement or underground shelter, but only 2% had a shelter on the property. Mobile home residents should also consider developing an evacuation plan for seeking shelter at a safer location such as a neighbor’s house or basement. Having a plan of action has been shown to be a positive indicator of shelter-seeking behavior ( Balluz et al. 2000 ). However, Schmidlin et

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S. Hoekstra, K. Klockow, R. Riley, J. Brotzge, H. Brooks, and S. Erickson

% were female and 46% were male. About 92% were Caucasian. About 11% were between 18 and 25 years of age, 10% between 26 and 35, 16% between 36 and 45, 20% between 46 and 55, 14% between 56 and 65, and 30% over 65 years of age (a bias toward those older than 65 is acknowledged). Respondents were asked if they had an action plan if a tornado were to strike, as well as if they had a designated tornado shelter (which can be defined as any location the individual safely locates themselves during a

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Alan W. Black and Walker S. Ashley

that reduce vulnerability to these hazards include having a plan in place to address them, having a high school or college education attainment level, having a basement, and hearing sirens ( Legates and Biddle 1999 ; Balluz et al. 2000 ; Brown et al. 2002 ). Other factors can greatly increase vulnerability to these storms, such as housing type, the time of day, day of week, time of year, and/or age. In terms of housing type, the most vulnerable populations are those living in mobile homes

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David M. Schultz, Eve C. Gruntfest, Mary H. Hayden, Charles C. Benight, Sheldon Drobot, and Lindsey R. Barnes

-threatening risk to them. [An average of 7 days decade −1 have one or more tornadoes within 25 miles of Austin (Fig. 1 in Doswell 2003 ).] Of all respondents, 40% said their home had a basement, tornado shelter, or an interior room where they could seek shelter, and 63% of all respondents said that they had a plan to keep themselves and their family safe in a tornado. Respondents whose homes did not have a basement, tornado shelter, or interior room were equally as likely to have a family safety plan as not

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Philip L. Chaney, Greg S. Weaver, Susan A. Youngblood, and Kristin Pitts

Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather radio for receiving warnings and developing a plan for where to seek shelter. These types of risk-reducing actions are also known as hazards adjustments ( Burton et al. 1978 ). In addition to conducting an inventory of hazard adjustments when assessing vulnerability, it is also important to understand what factors motivate people to adopt these adjustments. Mileti and Sorenson (1987) identified four steps in the process of adopting precautions

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Danielle E. Nagele and Joseph E. Trainor

affect protective action. Being a high school graduate increases the likelihood of a person responding to a warning message ( Balluz et al. 2000 ; Blanchard-Boehm and Cook 2004 ) and conversely, being less educated reduced the likelihood of responding to a warning message ( Liu et al. 1996 .) Finally, having a plan ( Balluz et al. 2000 ) and feeling prepared ( Blanchard-Boehm and Cook 2004 ) have also been found to increase protective action taking. The influence of other factors is less well known

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Carolyn Kousky

2007 ). Before making a request, the governor must have activated the state emergency plan and ensured that state and local action is underway ( Beauchesne 2001 ). In most cases, a preliminary damage assessment is undertaken by FEMA and local officials. FEMA then makes a recommendation to the president about whether to grant a declaration [the Government Accountability Office (GAO) has recently reported on how FEMA's process for recommendations should be improved; see GAO 2012 ]. For very extreme

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Walker S. Ashley, Stephen Strader, Troy Rosencrants, and Andrew J. Krmenec

but were limited by an inability to overcome the spatial unit variation problem ( Cai et al. 2006 ) associated with evolving enumerations that depict census data. We plan to eliminate these methodological concerns by using a homogenized procedure for assessing and quantifying changes in finescale weather hazard exposure to populations and their housing. 3. Data and methodology a. Population and housing grid construction Previous research on detection of changes in hazard exposure or vulnerability

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Mark A. Casteel and Joe R. Downing

time. 4. Results Initially, we planned to analyze the data from all 16 experimental warnings. We had assumed that participants would know how to enlarge the radar image for those warnings that included an image. It turned out that for several participants this was not the case. After they first saw a radar image (message 2 in list 1; message 1 in list 2), the researcher asked those participants who did not enlarge the image why they failed to do so; every one of them stated that they either did not

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