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Anna Agustí-Panareda, Anton Beljaars, Carla Cardinali, Iliana Genkova, and Chris Thorncroft

denote a station’s status: circles are reactivated stations (or those reconnected to the GTS) and triangles are stations that operated temporarily in 2006 (Praia is not shown, as it is very close to Sal, in the Cape Verde Islands). Color indicates the planned operational frequencies in 2006: white indicates operational (once per day) with no GTS communications, black indicates once per day, magenta twice per day, green four times per day (Tamanrasset) or variable (Dano), and red four times per day

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Fatima Karbou, Florence Rabier, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Jean-Luc Redelsperger, and Olivier Bock

compared with independent OLR estimates and the comparison was in favor of experiments assimilating microwave observations over land. Finally, let us point out that our assimilation experiments should be considered as first trials even if very promising results have been obtained. Further studies toward the assimilation of significantly more observations in clear, as well as cloudy, conditions are planned. With regard to the major changes to key parameters of the water cycle brought about by the

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Fatima Karbou, Elisabeth Gérard, and Florence Rabier

great deal of potential since it combines the estimation of the land surface emissivity (using an atlas) and the estimation of the land surface temperature. At this stage, it is desirable to further evaluate method 3 to validate the skin temperature estimations at microwave frequencies. Further studies focusing on method 3 are already planned. As mentioned above, method 2 has been found to be very useful in improving the assimilation of AMSU-A and -B observations over land. This method is further

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Peter Knippertz and Andreas H. Fink

.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1147:TVGPCP>2.0.CO;2 Borgne, J. L. , 1979 : Un exemple d’invasion polaire sur la région mauritano-sénégalaise. Ann. Géograph. , 489 , 521 – 548 . Buckle, C. , 1996 : Weather and Climate in Africa . Longman, 312 pp . Fall, S. , Niyogi D. , Mohanty U. C. , and Kumar A. , 2007 : Application of weather prediction models for hazard mitigation planning: A case study of heavy off-season rains in Senegal. Nat. Hazards , 41 , 227 – 243 . 10.1007/s11069-006-9033-x Frei, C. , Christensen J

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