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Peter J. Marinescu, Susan C. van den Heever, Max Heikenfeld, Andrew I. Barrett, Christian Barthlott, Corinna Hoose, Jiwen Fan, Ann M. Fridlind, Toshi Matsui, Annette K. Miltenberger, Philip Stier, Benoit Vie, Bethan A. White, and Yuwei Zhang

.1126/science.1092779 . 10.1126/science.1092779 Barthlott , C. , and C. Hoose , 2018 : Aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation over central Europe in different weather regimes . J. Atmos. Sci. , 75 , 4247 – 4264 , . 10.1175/JAS-D-18-0110.1 Best , M. J. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), model description—Part 1: Energy and water fluxes . Geosci. Model Dev. , 4 , 677 – 699 ,

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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

temperature (PT, calculated from temperature and pressure data derived from the ECMWF-AUX) difference between the surface and the 700-hPa pressure level (PT surface − PT 700-hPa ) ( Klein and Hartmann 1993 ). The mean of the difference between saturated specific humidity and ambient specific humidity (VaporD) at the 500- and 700-hPa levels was computed using CWC information ( Redelsperger et al. 2002 ). Instantaneous values for CRF were obtained from the CloudSat radiative fluxes and heating rate (2B

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Wojciech W. Grabowski

regime change; this does not apply to the case considered here.) The forcings refer to a prescribed initial meteorological situation (e.g., the sounding), surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, radiative cooling of the atmosphere, and the large-scale advection of temperature and moisture. The latter can be included through realistic lateral boundary conditions [as in typical limited-area numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations] or through prescribed tendencies imposed over a finite

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

amount of liquid water in AMPC has a large impact on surface radiative fluxes and energy balance, which could affect ice-melting rate ( Carrió et al. 2005 ). Increased CCN lead to increased cloud droplet concentrations and reduced droplet size in AMPC, which increases longwave radiative emissivity of clouds ( Lubin and Vogelmann 2006 ; Garrett and Zhao 2006 ; Garrett et al. 2009 ). The increase in downwelling longwave radiation due to CCN effects can result in surface warming, which may increase

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Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Yangang Liu, and Renyi Zhang

1. Introduction By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei, atmospheric aerosols affect cloud and precipitation processes, referred to as the aerosol microphysical effect (AME) ( Twomey 1977 ; Zhang et al. 2007 ; DeMott et al. 2011 ; Tao and Matsui 2015 ). Aerosols also alter the earth radiative budget by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation ( Charlson and Pilat 1969 ; Coakley et al. 1983 ; Peng et al. 2016 ), referred to as the aerosol direct effect

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Yan Yang, Jiwen Fan, L. Ruby Leung, Chun Zhao, Zhanqing Li, and Daniel Rosenfeld

as BC. Fig . 2. Spatial distribution of clear-sky AOD at 550-nm wavelength averaged over the study time period (1–20 Jul 2008) from (a) the satellite observations, (b) P_ALL, and (c) C_ALL. (d) The correlations of daily accumulated surface shortwave radiative fluxes measured at Jinghe (34°26′N, 108°58′E), ~30 km west of Xi’an, with those in P_ALL and C_ALL. The data points shown are the summed surface shortwave radiative fluxes over each study day; at the time of writing, the data were available

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Wojciech W. Grabowski and Hugh Morrison

-PRI in the rain accumulation is statistically significant, whereas it is not for the cloud cover. b. Impact on radiative transfer Figure 7 shows evolution of the horizontally averaged TOA outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), TOA albedo, and the surface net radiative flux for all simulations. The 12-h-averaged values are shown in Table 2 . As Fig. 7 shows, differences between PRI and POL ensembles emerge around hour 3 in the surface energy and TOA albedo regardless of whether PRI or POL drives the

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Nicholas R. Nalli, William L. Smith, and Quanhua Liu

-based remote sensing and radiative flux applications (e.g., Taylor and Ellingson 2008 ) to passive IR remote sensing applications. In this paper we have extended our applications of the PCLoS model toward the estimation of cloud aspect ratios from cloud shadows, which we envision may be useful for future aircraft campaigns equipped with all-sky cameras, or in analyses of clouds within satellite visible imagery, or in future applications where cloud shadowing might be of interest (e.g., radiative transfer

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Andrew R. Jongeward, Zhanqing Li, Hao He, and Xiaoxiong Xiong

1. Introduction Aerosols contribute directly to atmospheric variability and to Earth’s radiative balance through scattering and absorption of solar radiation. Aerosols also contribute indirectly through complex aerosol–cloud interactions (ACI). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) indicates that while the mechanisms of aerosol direct effects are well known, the uncertainties in the estimates of aerosol direct and indirect effects are larger than any

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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

increased aerosol loading is associated with taller cloud towers and anvils ( Koren et al. 2010 ). Wang et al. (2014) highlighted that the radiative effect of light-absorbing aerosols causes warming in the lower troposphere, which strengthens lower-level convection and enhances precipitation in the rainband region. Conversely, light-absorbing aerosols in higher atmospheric layers increase stability, thereby diminishing convection, moistening the surface layer, and reducing evaporation and hence

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