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Young-Kwon Lim, Siegfried D. Schubert, Oreste Reale, Myong-In Lee, Andrea M. Molod, and Max J. Suarez

) that many previous studies have not emphasized. The analysis of the runs is geared to better understanding the atmospheric response determining the TC activity over the North Atlantic with a particular focus on the atmospheric instability over the TC genesis region, the thermodynamic and radiative balance, the low-level fluxes and circulation, and the mean climate state response. The organization of the paper is as follows. Section 2 describes the GEOS-5 model and the experimental design. The

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Gabriele Villarini, David A. Lavers, Enrico Scoccimarro, Ming Zhao, Michael F. Wehner, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Thomas R. Knutson, and Kevin A. Reed

the following results, we now examine the potential changes in TC rainfall under three different scenarios based on the GFDL model. In the 2×CO 2 run ( Fig. 4 , center-left panels) the intensity of the composite TC rainfall weakens compared to the Present Day simulation (~5%–15%; Table 1 ), as shown by the reduced footprint of the largest rainfall areas. In this run, the atmospheric radiative cooling rate decreases because of a reduction of TOA outgoing longwave radiative flux. In an equilibrium

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Enrico Scoccimarro, Silvio Gualdi, Gabriele Villarini, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Ming Zhao, Kevin Walsh, and Antonio Navarra

, variability, and change with global warming. The main difference is that HiRAM2.2 incorporates a new land model [GFDL land model version 3 (LM3)]. The atmospheric dynamical core of the model was also updated to improve efficiency and stability. As a result of these changes, there are minor retunings of the atmospheric parameters in the cloud and surface boundary layer parameterizations necessary to achieve the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative balance. This model is also the version of HiRAM used for the

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Yohei Yamada and Masaki Satoh

model parameters, in spite of the upper cloud spread in the tropics. They argued by using a simple mechanistic model that the reduction of the convective mass flux resulting from global warming decreases the IWP. Such a decrease in IWP is also different from the response analyzed for the relatively coarse-resolution climate models ( Zelinka et al. 2012b ). It is unknown whether these differences result from the different treatments of convective clouds (i.e., explicit versus parameterized). The

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Wei Mei, Shang-Ping Xie, and Ming Zhao

the model output described below, only the observed track data between 1979 and 2008 are used. b. Simulated TC tracks We use output from a 25-km-resolution version of the High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) to study the variability of TC activity in response to observed SSTs. We note that Emanuel and Sobel (2013) recently suggested that climate model simulations forced only with observed SSTs may not produce correct surface fluxes and correct surface wind speeds and may thereby influence

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Michael Wehner, Prabhat, Kevin A. Reed, Dáithí Stone, William D. Collins, and Julio Bacmeister

provides a common experimental framework to isolate model-dependent responses. Preliminary multimodel results have been reported in Zhao et al. (2013) , Daloz et al. (2015) , Shaevitz et al. (2014) , and Walsh et al. (2015) . Although overly simplified, these four numerical experiments begin to provide a basis to develop a climate theory of tropical cyclone formation ( Walsh et al. 2015 ). Sugi et al. (2012) argued that an increase in CO 2 decreases radiative cooling, precipitation, and upward

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Christina M. Patricola, R. Saravanan, and Ping Chang

used: the Kain–Fritsch cumulus, Lin et al. microphysics, the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for general circulation models (RRTMG) longwave radiation, Goddard shortwave radiation, Yonsei University (YSU) planetary boundary layer using a Monin–Obukhov surface scheme, and the Noah land surface model. WRF is configured with a horizontal resolution of 27 km and 28 levels in the vertical reaching to 50 hPa on a domain ( Fig. 1 ) covering the Atlantic sector. The model time step is 90 s, and output is

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Suzana J. Camargo, Michael K. Tippett, Adam H. Sobel, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Ming Zhao

than in the simulated NTC. Fig . 13. Box plot of the difference in NTC per year (Southern Hemisphere July–June season) in future scenarios normalized by the mean NTC per hemisphere in the climatological simulation in the (a) Southern and (b) Northern Hemisphere. a. Vertical velocity and convective precipitation Held and Zhao (2011) argued that changes in genesis in HiRAM in different future scenarios followed changes in the mean vertical motion, reflecting changes in convective mass fluxes. Zhao

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