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Paul A. Dirmeyer, Yan Jin, Bohar Singh, and Xiaoqin Yan

sort of “upper bound” for radiative forcing on coupled land–atmosphere responses in the CMIP5 dataset. RCP85 is characterized by high ongoing anthropogenic CO 2 emissions, a severe curtailment of aerosols, and ongoing land use change, particularly in low latitudes and the Southern Hemisphere ( Riahi et al. 2011 ). The variables used in this study are the soil wetness in the top 10 cm of the soil column, surface sensible and latent heat fluxes, near-surface temperature, and relative humidity

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Lin Chen, Yongqiang Yu, and De-Zheng Sun

that they are the models whose outputs including both historical runs and AMIP runs had been submitted to the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) at the time of our analysis. The historical (AMIP) runs of these models cover the period 1850–2005 (1979–2005). Table 1. List of CMIP5 models analyzed in this study. The radiative fluxes supplied by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP; Zhang et al. 2004 ) and the precipitation derived from the Global

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Anji Seth, Sara A. Rauscher, Michela Biasutti, Alessandra Giannini, Suzana J. Camargo, and Maisa Rojas

experiments from the WCRP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archive ( Taylor et al. 2012 ) is analyzed to further explore the response of precipitation in monsoon regions to radiative forcings in the twenty-first century. The analysis is extended beyond that of SRRGC to evaluate the role of moisture flux divergence changes in delaying the activation of the local mechanism in spring. This analysis is performed through the annual cycle, thus permitting a view of both transition seasons. We

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Hailong Liu, Chunzai Wang, Sang-Ki Lee, and David Enfield

across all basins, which is highly correlated with the tropical mean caused by biases in atmospheric simulations of cloud cover, and the other with large variability in the cold tongue regions caused by biases of oceanic thermocline depth. The AWP bias is more related to radiative flux errors due to local convection and clouds ( LWLE12 ). As the AWP is adjacent to the NTA and, in fact, includes the western NTA (the NTA is defined as the region of 5.5°–23.5°N, 57.5°–15°W), climate variability of the

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Xianan Jiang, Eric D. Maloney, Jui-Lin F. Li, and Duane E. Waliser

project that features a continuous rise in radiative forcing during the twenty-first century, which leads to a value of about 8.5 W m −2 in 2100 ( Riahi et al. 2011 ). The main variables analyzed in this study include precipitation, surface latent heat flux, and 850-hPa winds. Table 1. CMIP5 models analyzed in this study. b. Observational datasets Rainfall observations are based on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM product 3B42, version V6) ( Huffman et al. 1995 ) precipitation dataset

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Gabriel A. Vecchi, Rym Msadek, Whit Anderson, You-Soon Chang, Thomas Delworth, Keith Dixon, Rich Gudgel, Anthony Rosati, Bill Stern, Gabriele Villarini, Andrew Wittenberg, Xiasong Yang, Fanrong Zeng, Rong Zhang, and Shaoqing Zhang

forcing (greenhouse gases, aerosols, volcanoes, and solar) have been made (e.g., Oouchi et al. 2006 ; Knutson et al. 2008 ; Emanuel et al. 2008 ; Gualdi et al. 2008 ; Vecchi et al. 2008 ; Sugi et al. 2009 , 2012 ; Zhao et al. 2009 ; Bender et al. 2010 ; Knutson et al. 2010 ; Villarini et al. 2011b ; Zhao and Held 2011 ; Villarini and Vecchi 2012b , 2013a ). The basis for these projections is the possibility that radiatively forced climate change could influence the climatic conditions to

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Zaitao Pan, Xiaodong Liu, Sanjiv Kumar, Zhiqiu Gao, and James Kinter

). The projection experiments consist of four new representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios, RCP2.6 through RCP8.5, representing anthropogenic radiative forcing stabilizing at 2.6–8.5 W m −2 by 2100 ( Moss et al. 2010 ). In this study, we focus on the all-forcing historical and RCP4.5 experiments, with limited exploration of the historicalGHG and historicalNat (natural forcing, such as volcanic eruption, only) runs. The historical runs are forced by observed atmospheric

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Leila M. V. Carvalho and Charles Jones

associated atmospheric radiative forcing has dramatically increased in the last decades ( Forster et al. 2007 ). Changes in atmospheric forcing modify the distribution of the atmospheric heating with consequences to the hydrological cycle. The atmospheric moisture content increases in response to global warming following the Clausius–Clapeyron relationship, but the rate of precipitation increase is slower as predicted by climate models ( Allen and Ingram 2002 ; Richter and Xie 2008 ; Cherchi et al

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Edmund K. M. Chang

-filtered transient eddy statistics was pioneered by Blackmon (1976) . This alternative Eulerian definition has the advantage of highlighting eddy energy and fluxes that are closely related to the interactions between storm track and the low-frequency flow (e.g., Cai and Mak 1990 ). Most previous studies have made use of either one or the other definitions, but several studies that have examined multiple storm-track quantities (e.g., Paciorek et al. 2002 ; Pinto et al. 2007 ; Chang 2009 ) have found

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Meng-Pai Hung, Jia-Lin Lin, Wanqiu Wang, Daehyun Kim, Toshiaki Shinoda, and Scott J. Weaver

in the CMIP3 version. Some of the CMIP5 models have also evolved from “climate system models” to “Earth system models” and include biogeochemical components and time-varying carbon fluxes among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial biosphere. The evaluation of the performance of the CMIP5 models in terms of the tropical intraseasonal variability and the comparison of the simulation fidelity against that of the former generation of models is the goal of this study. The evaluation of the tropical

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