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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

presented using observations and real-data numerical simulations. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 includes a brief description of the model configuration and the synoptic conditions for the two STW events. The characteristics of simulated STWs are illustrated in section 3 based on observations and numerical simulations. The vertical variation of STWs and associated momentum flux are analyzed in section 4 . The sensitivity of STWs to underlying topography and low

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Christopher G. Kruse, Ronald B. Smith, and Stephen D. Eckermann

topography and initial/boundary conditions. These simulations are extensively validated against research aircraft, radiosonde, and satellite observations collected over New Zealand during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) field campaign during May–July 2014 ( Fritts et al. 2016 ). From these simulations, the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum and GWD are quantified and compared with DEEPWAVE observations and parameterized quantities within NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

propagation). Vertical levels where the component of the background wind in the direction of wave propagation equals the horizontal phase speed are called critical levels. There, either total or partial critical level filtering (see Teixeira 2014 ) impedes the vertical propagation of gravity waves (e.g., Whiteway and Duck 1996 ). Often, the waves break and deposit their momentum at these levels (e.g., Dörnbrack 1998 ). The dissipation leads to deviations from the radiative equilibrium flow state at

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Stephen D. Eckermann, James D. Doyle, P. Alex Reinecke, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Ronald B. Smith, David C. Fritts, and Andreas Dörnbrack

wavelengths (see appendix B ) and to vertical variations in gravity wave activity [cf. Figs. 3a and 3b of Hoffmann and Alexander (2009) ]; (ii) radiative transfer (RT) is simpler. Kernel functions in the 4.3 μ m band, by contrast, are broader vertically and RT is complicated by breakdown of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE; DeSouza-Machado et al. 2007 ; Hoffmann and Alexander 2009 ; Chen et al. 2013 ). Corresponding 4.3 μ m gravity wave products are described in section 2c and are compared to

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Jun Ma, Karl W. Hoppel, David D. Kuhl, Douglas R. Allen, James A. Doyle, Kevin C. Viner, Benjamin C. Ruston, Nancy L. Baker, Steven D. Swadley, Timothy R. Whitcomb, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Liang Xu, N. Kaifler, B. Kaifler, Iain M. Reid, Damian J. Murphy, and Peter T. Love

. Although new fast parameterizations of exothermic chemical heating and radiative heating and cooling modified by breakdown in local thermodynamic equilibrium were available, these schemes are still being tested and refined. For this work, we incorporated simpler temporary lookup-table-based parameterizations of these rates as a function of season, latitude, and height, derived by archiving and averaging rates from a 25-yr simulation of the specified dynamics version of the Whole Atmosphere Community

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