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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

radiative fluxes. Values shown are for untuned experiments (S1u, S2u, and S3u) and based on a 1-yr simulation. Fig . 2. Impact of retuning on cloud drop number concentration distributions. Box plots show 1st, 25th, median, 75th, and 99th percentiles. S1u, S2u, S3u refer to untuned experiments. S1, S2, and S3 have been retuned to have the same net radiation as the REF configuration. It is interesting to note that these formulation changes alone have a radiative impact with a magnitude comparable to the

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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

with surface flux changes Ocean surface temperatures differ between the coupled models due to either changes in surface boundary fluxes or through differences in oceanic heat transport from advection and subgrid-scale processes. For example, as discussed in Donner et al. (2011) , changes made to the CM3 atmosphere result in a complex pattern of changes in radiative fluxes relative to CM2.1. In particular, Fig. 3 shows the annual mean absorbed shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere for

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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

, and differences in these fluxes for (b) CM2.1 minus BSRN and (d) CM3 minus BSRN. Model fluxes are obtained from the clear-sky radiative transfer code at all grid points and times (regardless of cloud characteristics), providing consistent sampling with respect to seasonal and diurnal cycles in CM2.1 and CM3. Aerosol activation into cloud droplets follows the parameterization detailed in Ming et al. (2006) . Sulfate and sea salt aerosols are treated as pure ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride

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John Austin, Larry W. Horowitz, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, R. John Wilson, and Hiram Levy II

scarcely affect the main chemistry. This ensures that there is no artificial transition level in the model where the reaction set changes, thus increasing the overall validity of the results. For the radiative forcing, a limited number of chlorofluorocarbon species were considered (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, HCFC-22), but for the halogen chemistry all known contributors were included in parameterized form [as described in detail by Austin and Wilson (2010) ]. These contributors include additional

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