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Jean Philippe Duvel and Jérôme Vialard

wind, and the SST, and not by the interbasin structure of the convective perturbations. The large-scale organized convective events are thus detected here by applying the LMA separately for the Indian Ocean (30°S–30°N, 50°–110°E), the Maritime Continent (30°S–30°N, 100°–160°E), or the western Pacific (30°S–30°N, 150°–210°E). The NCEP radiative surface fluxes are not used here because we prefer to rely on the observed OLR as a proxy for the phasing between the SST and the solar flux perturbation due

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Lisan Yu, Xiangze Jin, and Robert A. Weller

-free ocean. To compute the net heat fluxes, surface downward–upward shortwave and longwave radiations are taken from the ISCCP-FD surface radiation fields that were calculated from a radiative transfer model from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM using ISCCP observations ( Zhang et al. 2004 ). The ISCCP-FD data are 3 hourly, available for the whole globe with 2.5° × 2.5° grid resolution and for the time period July 1983–June 2001. The data were daily averaged and linearly interpolated

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Tomoki Tozuka, Jing-Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, and Toshio Yamagata

Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil (OASIS 2.4; Valcke et al. 2000 ) coupling software package. No measures for flux adjustments are taken in the model. For the AGCM, a semi-Lagrangian transport method ( Rasch and Williamson 1990 ) is used for the advection of cloud water and water vapor, while the parameterization of Tiedtke (1989) is used to represent convection and that of Morcrette (1991) is used for radiation. The horizontal resolution of the OGCM is 2° × 2° cosine (latitude) with an increased meridional

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J. Stuart Godfrey, Rui-Jin Hu, Andreas Schiller, and R. Fiedler

1. Introduction This paper and the following one ( Hu and Godfrey 2007 , hereafter Part II ) suggest that ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) are systematically underestimating the annual mean net heat flux (AMNHF) into the northern Indian Ocean, and explore possible reasons for this. The magnitude of interannual variation of any quantity is often roughly proportional to its mean. If the AMNHF into this region is underestimated, its interannual variability—and hence the amount of heat

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Vinu K. Valsala and Motoyoshi Ikeda

1. Introduction Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is a system of currents flowing from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean and the only low-latitude connection between the world oceans. The ITF is the major route of fresh and warm water from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean ( Gordon and Fine 1996 ). It plays a significant role in the Indian Ocean heat budget by exchanging nearly 11 W m −2 with the atmosphere, which amounts to up to 25% of the net air–sea heat flux of the southern Indian Ocean ( Vranes

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Joaquim Ballabrera-Poy, Eric Hackert, Raghu Murtugudde, and Antonio J. Busalacchi

variability associated with the annual Rossby waves in the southern Arabian Sea and the Southern Hemisphere around 12°S (e.g., Perigaud and Delecluse 1993 ; Masumoto and Yamagata 1996 ). The spatial distribution of the Southern Hemisphere maximum at 10°S is in agreement with the amplitude of the annual harmonic of T/P estimated by ( Wang et al. 2001 ). The northern signal corresponds to westward-propagating Rossby waves radiated from the western coast of the Indian subcontinent, which cross the Arabian

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H. Annamalai, H. Okajima, and M. Watanabe

spectral model with a horizontal resolution of T42 and with 20 sigma levels in the vertical. The physical parameterizations include a sophisticated radiative transfer scheme ( Nakajima and Tanaka 1986 ), a simplified Arakawa–Schubert cumulus convection scheme ( Arakawa and Schubert 1974 ), a prognostic cloud water scheme ( Le Treut and Li 1991 ), a bulk surface fluxes scheme ( Louis 1979 ), and a simple land surface model ( Manabe et al. 1965 ). Detailed descriptions and general performance of the

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Annalisa Cherchi, Silvio Gualdi, Swadhin Behera, Jing Jia Luo, Sebastien Masson, Toshio Yamagata, and Antonio Navarra

scheme for the advection of water vapor and cloud water ( Rasch and Williamson 1990 ). The parameterization of convection is based on the mass flux concept ( Tiedtke 1989 ) modified following Nordeng (1994) . The Morcrette (1991) radiation scheme is used with the insertion of greenhouse gases and a revised parameterization for water vapor and the optical properties of clouds. The vertical turbulent transfer of momentum, mass, water vapor, and cloud water is based on the similarity theory of Monin

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Qian Song, Gabriel A. Vecchi, and Anthony J. Rosati

/eastern tropical Pacific (e.g., Harrison and Larkin 1998 ). These basin-wide ENSO-driven Indian Ocean SSTAs can be partially attributed to anomalous air–sea enthalpy and radiative fluxes, remotely forced by ENSO through an “atmospheric bridge” ( Klein et al. 1999 ). However, the lack of equatorial upwelling does not preclude coupled dynamics arising from Bjerknes-type feedbacks in the Indian Ocean, as there is upwelling along the coast of Somalia (boreal summer), off of Java–Sumatra (May–November), and in the

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Gabriel A. Vecchi and Matthew J. Harrison

temperature is taken from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) Reanalysis-2; relative humidity is assumed constant at 85%. Radiative forcing at the surface of the ocean is taken from the daily mean values of the NCEP–NCAR Reanalysis-2 product; incoming solar radiation is distributed in the vertical using a double exponential with 40% of the energy flux absorbed with a 2-m e -folding scale, and 60% absorbed with a 35-m e- folding scale

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