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Lisa Milani, Mark S. Kulie, Daniele Casella, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Giulia Panegrossi, Veljko Petkovic, Sarah E. Ringerud, Jean-François Rysman, Paolo Sanò, Nai-Yu Wang, Yalei You, and Gail Skofronick-Jackson

et al. 2018 ; Pettersen et al. 2020 ). Deeper cloud structures that are characteristic of midlatitude winter cyclones are generally easier for PMWs to detect due to strong scattering signals from ice particles and higher reflectivity values that can be detected by radars with reduced sensitivity. Shallow snowfall, however, presents unique PMW detection complexities at higher latitudes since its radiative signal can be difficult to discern over snow-covered surfaces. Depending on radar

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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

used, but there is also another option to consider. Yanai et al. (1973) recognized that the column-integrated apparent heating over an area sufficient for a cloud ensemble minus the radiation effects is balanced by the net surface precipitation and the net surface heat fluxes as follows: where Q 1 is the apparent heat source, Q R is the radiative heating rate, P o is the surface precipitation rate, S o is the surface heat flux, g is gravity, and L is the latent heat of condensation

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

1. Introduction and motivation Variability in precipitation typology affects vertical water and energy fluxes though the associated precipitation structure, dynamics, microphysical processes, and latent heat release. The distribution of convective and stratiform precipitation impacts Earth’s radiative properties and atmospheric circulation. While the differences in microphysical processes and dynamics in convective and stratiform systems are well documented in the literature (e.g., Houze 1997

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Nobuyuki Utsumi, F. Joseph Turk, Ziad S. Haddad, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and Hyungjun Kim

the net flux of the condensed water at the bottom of this profile as seen from space and is arguably one of the quantities that the TB is least directly sensitive to ( Haddad et al. 2017 ). Furthermore, precipitation that falls near the surface is a manifestation of its associated vertical precipitation structure nearby and above. This implies that a more representative passive MW algorithm would have an ability to jointly estimate the vertical structure and the surface precipitation. Some of the

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